Program Areas
Quick Reference
Greenhouse Gases

NASA image of Earth from space.

The Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Program Area includes the latest guidance and information resources to aid Federal facilities in managing greenhouse gas emissions. This encompasses current guidance, policies, and trends related to climate change/global warming, calculation of carbon footprints, GHG inventories, and the application of offsets to reduce carbon footprints.

Click to access FedCenter's GHG Inventory Reporting module for Federal agencies.

The primary 6 GHGs of concern are: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. The main sources of these gases due to human activity are as follows:

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): burning of fossil fuels and deforestation;
  • Methane (CH4): livestock enteric fermentation (i.e. cows) and manure management, paddy rice farming, land use and wetland changes, pipeline losses, and covered vented landfill emissions;
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): these items are of concern from the standpoint of global warming and the Kyoto Protocol;
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs): these are being used in refrigerating units as replacements for CFCs;
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O): this is used for its anesthetic and analgesic effects as well as being used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines;
  • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6): used in the electrical industry as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage (35 kV and above) circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, often referred to as SF6. SF6 is also employed as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. See the DOE Safety Bulletin for more information on SF6.

As part of the Federal agenda on GHG, Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, was signed by President Obama on 19 March 2015.

EO 13693 asks agencies to propose to the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) percentage reduction targets for agency-wide reductions of scope 1 and 2 and scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions in absolute terms by the end of fiscal year 2025 relative to a fiscal year 2008 baseline. Where appropriate, the target shall exclude direct emissions from excluded vehicles and equipment and from electric power produced and sold commercially to other parties as the primary business of the agency. The proposed targets shall be subject to the review and approval of the Chair of CEQ in coordination with the Director of OMB.

Progress on the attainment of these goals will be reported annually to the Chair of CEQ and Director of OMB.

EPA developed the tool Development of Agency Reduction Targets (DARTs) for agencies to use to calculate and submit their scope 1 and 2 GHG emission.

FEMP developed the tool Annual GHG and Sustainability Data Report for agencies to use to develop their comprehensive GHG inventories due to OMB and CEQ by 31 January 2011.

For guidance pertaining to EO 13693 and additional GHG emissions reduction goals related to transportation, please see the Transportation Program Area.

The following definitions from EO 13693 are applicable to this Program Area:

  • Absolute Greenhouse Gas Emissions - total greenhouse gas emissions without normalization for activity levels and includes any allowable consideration of sequestration (EO 13693, Section 19, para a).

  • Agency - an executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, excluding the Government Accountability Office (EO 13693, Section 19, para b).

  • Federal Facility - any building or collection of buildings, grounds, or structures, as well as any fixture or part thereof, which is owned by the United States or any Federal agency or that is held by the United States or any Federal agency under a lease-acquisition agreement under which the United States or a Federal agency will receive fee simple title under the terms of such agreement without further negotiation (EO 13693, Section 19, para l)

  • Greenhouse Gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, nitrogen triflouride, and sulfur hexafluoride (EO 13693, Section 19, para m).

  • Scope 1, 2, and 3 - (EO 13693, Section 19, para x).
    • Scope 1: direct greenhouse gas emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the agency;
    • Scope 2: direct greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the generation of electricity, heat, or steam purchased by an agency;
    • Scope 3: greenhouse gas emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by an agency but related to agency activities such as vendor supply chains, delivery and transportation services, and employee travel and commuting.

Please use the links below to quickly jump to the information area needed or scroll down to view all items.

Regulations, Guidance, and Policy
This act was signed into law on August 8, 2005. The Act contains a multitude of provisions covering energy production, distribution, storage, efficiency, conservation, and research. Title XVI of the act addresses climate change.
Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade
19 March 2015
The goal of EO 13693 is to maintain Federal leadership in sustainability and greenhouse gas emission reductions. Signed by President Obama on 19 March 2015. Section 16 of this EO revokes the following:
  • Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007;
  • Executive Order 13514 of October 5, 2009;
  • Presidential Memorandum of December 2, 2011 (Implementation of Energy Savings Projects and Performance-Based Contracting for Energy Savings);
  • Section 1 of Presidential Memorandum of February 21, 2012 (Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America through Biobased and Sustainable Product Procurement); and
  • Presidential Memorandum of December 5, 2013 (Federal Leadership on Energy Management); and
  • Presidential Memorandum of May 24, 2011 (Federal Fleet Performance).
Need help understanding Executive Order (EO) 13693? Want to know more about how to take action and turn your building into a high-performance building? The Sustainable Facilities Tool can walk you through EO 13693. Click through the annotated text for definitions, strategies, and links.
These instructions, dated 10 June 2015, provide Federal Executive departments and agencies with clarifying instructions for implementing EO 13693.
This CEQ guidance, dated 17 January 2016, provides direction for calculating and reporting GHG emissions in accordance with E.O. 13693 directives. Agencies shall follow this Guidance to ensure consistent and transparent reporting of Federal GHG emissions. This Guidance is accompanied by appendices that provide more detailed information on inventory reporting, calculation methodologies, and emission factors. This Guidance is not designed for quantifying the reductions from individual GHG mitigation projects, nor does it include strategies for reducing GHG emissions. If an agency identifies a GHG emissions reduction activity or practice that is not covered in this guidance document, and wishes to receive GHG emissions reduction credit for such an activity or practice, the agency should consult with CEQ and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to receive documented approval of the proposed activity or practice and the accounting methodology beforehand.
Revised 4 June 2012, this guidance was affirmed as remaining in effect in the Implementing Instructions for EO 13693. This Guidance serves as the Federal Government's official Greenhouse Gas Protocol and is used by Federal agencies to develop their GHG inventories.
Suppliers of fossil fuels or industrial greenhouse gases, manufacturers of vehicles and engines, and facilities that emit 25,000 metric tons or more per year of GHG emissions are required to submit annual reports to EPA. The gases covered by the proposed rule are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and other fluorinated gases including nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and hydrofluorinated ethers (HFE). The final rule was signed by the EPA Administrator on September 22, 2009.
This is a series of information sheets intended to assist potential reporters and others to understand key provisions of the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule. The "General Provisions" information sheet provides an overview of the source categories covered under this rule. The source-specific information sheets and checklists highlight key information on each specific emission category. The monitoring checklist identifies the data needed to monitor starting 1 January 2010.
This GSA document, published April 2010, details the response to EO 13514, Section 13's mandate that the General GSA, in coordination with other key agencies, to assess the feasibility of working with the Federal supplier community (comprised of vendors and contractors that serve federal agencies) to measure and reduce supply chain GHG emissions, while encouraging sustainable supplier operations. This report is a feasibility assessment addressing the requirements of Section 13 and was developed by a cross-agency working group led by GSA.
These guidelines, updated in January 2007 by the DOE's Office of Policy and International Affairs, are divided into General Guidelines and Technical Guidelines. The purpose of the General Guidelines is to establish the procedures and requirements for filing voluntary reports. The purpose of the Technical Guidelines is to define permissible methods of calculating reportable emissions and reductions.
This report was published 5 October 2010 by the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force. The report outlines recommendations on how Federal Agency policies and programs can better prepare the United States to respond to the impacts of climate change.
Issued by ICLE – Local Governments for Sustainability, the protocol consists of the general principles and philosophy that any local government, regardless of location, should adhere to when inventorying GHGs from its internal operations and community as a whole. The emission sources that should be included in a GHG inventory and the methods used to quantify theses sources are generally consistent between local governments, but are unique when compared with any other type of entity.
This standard specifies principles and requirements at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals. It includes requirements for the design, development, management, reporting and verification of an organization's GHG inventory.
This standard specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions or removal enhancements. It includes requirements for planning a GHG project, identifying and selecting GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs relevant to the project and baseline scenario, monitoring, quantifying, documenting and reporting GHG project performance and managing data quality.
This standard specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance for those conducting or managing the validation and/or verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) assertions. It can be applied to organizational or GHG project quantification, including GHG quantification, monitoring and reporting carried out in accordance with ISO 14064-1 or ISO 14064-2. This standard also specifies requirements for selecting GHG validators/verifiers, establishing the level of assurance, objectives, criteria and scope, determining the validation/verification approach, assessing GHG data, information, information systems and controls, evaluating GHG assertions and preparing validation/verification statements.
This standard specifies principles and requirements for bodies that undertake validation or verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) assertions.
This agreement, signed 12 December 2015, identifies global steps to be taken in order to improve the global air quality.
The GRP is an easy-to-follow user's manual that outlines the principles, concepts, calculation methodologies and procedures required for effective participation in the California Registry.
This is a mandatory, market-based effort in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ten Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states will cap and then reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector 10% by 2018.
Supporting Information and Tools
Databases/Software Tools
This MS Excel workbook, released September 21, 2011, updated through October 21, 2013 by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), provides electronic reporting capability for the Federal agency compiled comprehensive GHG inventory for FY2013 for the purpose of measuring progress toward the goals established under EO 13514. The workbook collects agency-aggregated data necessary for calculating scope 1, 2, and 3 GHG emissions in the commonly-used, native units of energy consumption and fugitive emissions as well as activity data for estimating scope 3 indirect emissions. It provides users with the summation of their calculated emissions as well as other performance results for other sustainability goals. More information on the reporting tool can be found here.
This tool is designed to help you assess whether your facility would be required to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as required by EPA's Mandatory GHG Reporting Rule. Applicability depends on the source categories located at the facility and, for some source categories, the emission level or production capacity.
EPA's tool for calculating your carbon footprint.
Carbonfund supports third-party validated renewable energy, energy efficiency and reforestation projects globally that reduce carbon dioxide emissions and the threat of climate change. They focus on climate change education, carbon offsets and reductions, and public outreach.
CARROT is the California Registry's greenhouse gas emission calculation and reporting software.
From the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), this is a web-based source for scientifically sound information and advice on the strengths, limitations, and applications of climate data. Experts who construct, evaluate, and compare climate data sets contribute their perspectives and advice on climate data and analysis methods for a broad community of data users. Users may participate by posting comments, questions, and links. NCAR has designed the tool to act as a living repository for the climate community's collective knowledge and expertise on a broad array of observational datasets and their appropriate use in analyses and model evaluation.
Module 1 of the CLIP Tool estimates GHG and CAP emissions from park sources (e.g., mobile combustion, wastewater treatment) and sums these emission estimates to produce an inventory for the entire park. Module 1 is designed for use by one or two individuals who collect "activity data" (data on activities that produce emissions) and enter the data into Module 1. After completing an inventory using Module 1, the user exports the results of the inventory to Module 2. Module 2 of the CLIP Tool allows users to investigate ways to reduce their park's emissions. The tool is organized into management sectors: energy, transportation, waste and education and outreach. Each management sector includes emission reduction calculators; information and links on related technologies, financial savings, and environmental benefits; and dynamic scenario-planning features. Module 2 culminates in the an Action Plan, which presents the park's emission inventory results, actions the park plans to take to reduce emissions, the associated emission reductions and cost savings, and narrative describing climate change and the park's efforts to mitigate climate change.
CEDB enables comparison of the potential emissions associated with moving passengers and freight via various transportation modes. The CEDB comprises emissions data for a wide range of vehicles across all modes. This data can be used as input to emissions models to calculate inventories and health and climate impacts.
The intent of this calculator is to help companies and individuals understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission implications of various disposal methods for durable goods. GHG emission and energy estimates provided by the Durable Goods Calculator are intended to support voluntary GHG measurement and reporting initiatives as well as provide information regarding the GHG emission implications of waste management decisions. The Calculator estimates GHG emissions benefits in MTCE and energy savings in MMBtu for recycling, landfilling and combustion of 14 typical durable goods.
This quiz estimates the amount of land and ocean area required to sustain an individual's consumption patterns and absorb their waste an annual basis.
eGRID is a comprehensive air emissions database of electric power plants in the United States, including emissions data on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and mercury. The new edition of eGRID now also provides emissions data on two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide.
This Carbonfund calculator helps users measures emissions from employee's commutes based on whether they are using motor vehicles or public transit.
e-GGRT is a web-based system EPA supporting reporting under the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP).
This Carbonfund calculator helps users measures emissions from events based on the length of the event, the distances traveled to the event, modes of travel, hotel use, and number of attendees.
This tool includes data reported by the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. The data reported by direct emitters provides a "bottom-up" accounting of the major sources of GHG emissions associated with stationary fuel combustion and industrial processes. Well over half of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are accounted for in this facility level data set, including nearly complete coverage of major emitting sectors such as power plants and refineries.
This EPA tool allows the user to explore data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from large facilities in the U.S.
This Excel workbook provides electronic reporting capability for the Federal agency compiled comprehensive GHG inventory for fiscal year 2010 and the base-year 2003 GHG inventory for the purpose of measuring progress toward the goals established under Executive Order.
The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation Planning section of the FEMP website is designed to provide Federal agency personnel with guidance to achieve agency GHG reduction goals in the most cost-effective way. Using a portfolio-based management approach for GHG mitigation planning, agencies will be able to prioritize strategies for GHG mitigation. Agencies can also use this guidance to set appropriate GHG reduction targets for different programs and sites within an agency
This Carbonfund calculator helps users measures fleet emissions based on the types of vehicles used and the miles driven.
These calculation tools and guidance are tailored specifically for service sector (banks, hospitals, etc.) and office-based organizations that have mainly indirect emissions arising from business operations and are not necessarily directly produced on-site. Included are tools and guidance for: transport or mobile sources; combined heat and power (CHP) plants; and employee commuting.
The EPA's greenhouse gas tool lets users see large facilities that emit greenhouse gases in the United States. Users can view emissions in their state or create a custom search.
This calculator translates rather difficult to understand statements such as "a metric ton of carbon dioxide: into more commonplace terms, such as "is equivalent to avoiding the carbon dioxide emissions of X number of cars annually." This equivalency calculator may be useful in communicating a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, reduction targets, or other initiatives aimed at reducing GHG emissions.
These tools are a part of EPA's Climate Leaders program and target low emitting businesses. Examples of low emitting businesses may include a service-industry company with 1,000 branch offices, a company with one small manufacturing plant, an owner of a single office building, a company that leases office space, or a branch of state or federal government.
The purpose of this DOE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) website is to assist Federal agencies with strategic planning for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The website will help agency personnel to evaluate mitigation strategies for different emission sources, including buildings, fleet vehicles, business travel and employee commuting, and prioritize projects to achieve reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner.

GSA's Carbon Footprint Tool – Assisting Agencies in Fulfilling GHG Inventory Reporting Requirements since 2010

GSA's Carbon Footprint Tool is a free and valuable resource for agencies looking to streamline their data collection process for both reporting and analysis. By directly linking to vital data sources and existing data management tools, including FAST, TravelTrax, and ENERGY STAR's Portfolio Manager, the time and money spent gathering and aggregating data from multiple sources is dramatically reduced. The Carbon Footprint Tool's new data management re-alignment, developed directly from existing user feedback, makes it easier than ever to input and analyze consumption information. Afterwards, directly export the data to the DOE FEMP Workbook format for quick and easy submittal to OMB and CEQ.

To find out more and get your agency involved, visit www.carbonfootprint.gsa.gov or send an email to carbonfootprint@gsa.gov.

This is an array of 24 climate and water information graphics for our region, covering recent and current precipitation, snowpack, drought, streamflow, reservoir, and ENSO conditions, and climate and ENSO forecasts. These graphics are served directly from their providers so that they are automatically updated in the Dashboard as often as the respective provider updates them. The user can select graphics to enlarge to full size, and move them around the Dashboard to compare with other information.
This emission modeling system estimates emissions for on-road and nonroad mobile sources, cover a broad range of pollutants, and allows multiple scale analysis.
This is a climate-visualization website tool from the Interior Department's U.S. Geological Survey. The tool gives citizens and resource managers the opportunity to look at climate-driven impacts on watersheds and map projected changes at the local, regional, state and watershed levels. The tool includes the historical and future climate projections from 30 of the downscaled models for two of the RCP emission scenarios, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The tool also allows users to visualize projected changes in climate (maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation) and the water balance (snow water equivalent, runoff, soil water storage and evaporative deficit) for any state, county and USGS Hydrologic Units (HUC).
This tool helps determine the GHG and energy benefits of current waste disposal practices. Users enter data on the amount of various waste materials they landfill, recycle, and incinerate, and the tool calculates how that waste disposal scenario compares with one in which all waste is landfilled. The tool reports the benefits in terms of GHGs and other air emissions, energy use, quantity of oil and gas consumed, waterborne wastes, and other metrics. Results are also displayed according to economic sector and life-cycle stage, and automatically-generated charts and graphs provide an illustrated view of the results.
This is a searchable online database that provides a gateway to climate information for the Eastern US. It summarizes needs for climate information as articulated in publications; identifies available data, products and services; and captures planned and on-going projects. The goal is to offer a tool to search for regionally relevant climate information, and to facilitate collaborative opportunities across the network of climate-focused programs and partners in the Eastern US.
The calculator generates estimates of the environmental benefits of a study area, based on the tonnages of materials that are source reduced, reused, recycled, landfilled, or incinerated (includes waste-to-energy). The Calculator is based on per ton figures of the estimated energy use and emissions from several lifecycle analysis studies. The estimates are average figures based on "typical" facilities and operating characteristics existing in the United States. Factors that are not included in this Calculator are landfill gas recovery and generation of electricity by waste-to-energy. The Calculator incorporates U.S. EPA's most recent WARM Calculator, as well as, facts and figures for the U.S. Department of Energy, Steel Recycling Institute, Glass Packaging Institute, and U.S. Climate Technology Cooperation Gateway, to name a few.
This Carbonfund calculator helps users measures office emissions based on utility bills, number of employees, or office space.
This calculator considers an individual's energy use, waste stream, and purchasing patterns to measure both the Global Acres required to support an individual's office-related activity and the CO2 emissions that result.
A free, desktop computer application which estimates the technology cost for automobile manufacturers to achieve variable fleet-wide levels of vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
This website is a gateway to a broad range of information related to climate in the Pacific Islands. It includes summaries of programs, projects, and activities, as well as products and services. Formed through the collaboration of and contributions from a family of agencies, institutions, and organizations, this website is intended to serve as a shared resource for research scientists, service providers, and decision-makers. The website provides access to a broad range of region specific information related to historical hindcasts and multi-decadal projections. For example, users can search, by region and/or climate variable, and find a list of relevant products along with a brief summary and a direct link to each. This developmental website was put together by representatives of the NOAA National Climatic Data Center working in support of the Pacific Climate Information System. For more information on the site, visit:
This Carbonfund calculator helps users measure paper use emissions based on the type and amount of paper used.
This EPA online calculator can be used to get a rough "ballpark" estimate of personal or family's greenhouse gas emissions and explore the impact of taking various actions to reduce emissions.
This is an online tool developed by EPA to measure and track energy and water consumption, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Use it to benchmark the performance of one building or a whole portfolio of buildings, all in a secure online environment. Section 3, paragraph a.1.C of EO 13693 requires monthly performance data be entered into Portfolio Manager for covered buildings.
The ReCon Tool was developed to assist companies and individuals in estimating the life-cycle GHG and energy impacts of purchasing or manufacturing certain materials; it also calculates the GHG and energy benefits of increasing the recycled content of specific materials. The ReCon Tool was last updated August, 2006.
This Carbonfund calculator helps users measure emissions from shipping based on the method of shipment, weight of shipped items, and distance shipped.
This new series provides critical information on changing climate; changes that are taking place now, and taking place in your hometown, city or state. Each week the website will feature content for a new state, and continue adding stories on existing states.
This tool (TTX Tool) introduces users to the potential impacts of climate change on the water sector within the context of an all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness and response. The 15 scenarios in the tool include natural hazards, man-made incidents, and potential climate change impacts. Five climate change-related scenarios provide an opportunity for utilities to consider and implement long-term planning measures in order to mitigate the potential impacts of climate change. To request copies of the TTX Tool, please email ttxtool@epa.gov with your mailing address and number of copies.
The USGCRP recently announced the online availability of a suite of scenarios on climate, sea level rise, land use and land cover, and other conditions. These scenarios were developed as input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. The scenarios were developed by multiple agencies in consultation with a National Climate Assessment working group whose members include both university-based and federal research scientists.
WARM was developed to assist solid waste managers in determining the GHG impacts of their waste management practices. WARM compares GHG and energy impacts of landfilling, recycling, incineration, composting, and source reduction. WARM was last updated August 2010.
Use this calculator to determine your carbon footprint and ways to decrease it.
A newsletter produced quarterly by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG). The newsletter aims to provide general information on new developments in the field of greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation.
This website serves as a hub for recent climate-related work at the Academies. It highlights climate studies that have been produced by committees of leading scientists and other experts convened by the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and numerous other entities within the National Research Council. At this site, you will find brief summaries, booklets, videos, and other resources related to these reports. You will also find information about significant ongoing climate activities across the Academies.
Sponsored by the U.S. DOT, the clearinghouse is designed as a one-stop source of information on transportation and climate change issues. It includes information on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, analytic methods and tools, GHG reduction strategies, potential impacts of climate change on transportation infrastructure, and approaches for integrating climate change considerations into transportation decision making.
ENERGY STAR connects users with a broad range of tools and resources to help them implement a successful energy management strategy, including the reduction of greenhouse gases. Examples of tools in the library include: guidance on energy management, improving building performance, and assessing energy efficiency.
The publications and tools on this page are compiled from across the State and Local Climate and Energy Web site for quick access. Descriptions of the resources, suggestions for their use, and additional case studies and links to other resources can be found on the topic pages of the Web site.
This site provides information about measuring greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, the contribution of transportation sources to total emissions of greenhouse gases, and solutions for reducing emissions from transportation.
A library of WCI documents and materials.
A voluntary effort jointly sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the U.S. Department of Energy. The program encourages the use of methane recovery (biogas) technologies at the confined animal feeding operations that manage manure as liquids or slurries.
ACCO was founded in August 2008 and incorporated in Washington, DC in January 2009 as a 501(c)(6) non-profit corporation. ACCO's mission is advance the knowledge and skills of those dedicated to developing and directing climate change strategies in the public and private sectors, and to establish a flexible and robust forum for collaboration between climate change officers.
The Registry is a private non-profit organization originally formed by the State of California. The California Registry serves as a voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) registry to protect and promote early actions to reduce GHG emissions by organizations.
EPA's Adaptation Resource Center (ARC-X) is an interactive resource to help local governments effectively deliver services to their communities even as the climate changes. Decision makers can create an integrated package of information tailored specifically to their needs. Once users select areas of interest, they will find information about: the risks posed by climate change to the issues of concern; relevant adaptation strategies; case studies illustrating how other communities have successfully adapted to those risks and tools to replicate their successes; and EPA funding opportunities.
A multi-agency, planning and coordination entity that assists the government in carrying out the President's National Climate Change Technology Initiative. It is managed by the Department of Energy and organized around five technology areas for which working groups have been established. EPA participates in all of the working groups and chairs the group focused on reducing emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases.
This program provides parks with the tools and resources to address climate change. Member parks around the country are leading the way in the effort to protect our Nation's natural and cultural resources to ensure their preservation for future generations.
A nonprofit collaboration among North American states, provinces, territories and Native Sovereign Nations that sets consistent and transparent standards to calculate, verify and publicly report greenhouse gas emissions into a single registry.
a voluntary program to reduce the environmental impact of power generation by promoting the use of CHP. CHP is an efficient, clean and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source. The Partnership works closely with energy users, the CHP industry, state and local governments and other stakeholders to support the development of new projects and promote their energy, environmental and economic benefits.
A joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy helping us all save money and protect the environment through energy efficient products and practices. With the help of ENERGY STAR enough energy was saved in 2008 alone to avoid greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to those from 29 million cars -- all while saving $19 billion on their utility bills.
An EPA industry-government partnership that works with companies to develop comprehensive climate change strategies. Partner companies commit to reducing their impact on the global environment by completing a corporate-wide inventory of their greenhouse gas emissions based on a quality management system, setting aggressive reduction goals, and annually reporting their progress to EPA.
This FEMP program area provides information on the basics of GHGs, a review of Federal requirements, guidance, contacts, and technical assistance and training.
The GHG Institute is a non-profit organization founded in 2007 to build the GHG management infrastructure of the future, with a focus on training and supporting a global community of qualified professionals to work on GHG measurement, accounting, auditing and management.
Developed by NASA, this site presents the vitals signs for the planet. Vital Signs include measurements of arctic sea ice, carbon dioxide, sea level, global temperature, and the size of the ozone hole. The site also discusses evidence, causes, effects, and solutions to climate change.
GSA's CPES BPA helps agencies achieve their energy, greenhouse gas, and water conservation goals using a streamlined acquisition process.
The IPCC is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It was established to provide the decision-makers and others interested in climate change with an objective source of information about climate change. The IPCC doesn't conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Its role is to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the latest scientific, technical and socio-economic literature produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change, its observed and projected impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
This is a flexible, voluntary partnership between EPA and the oil and natural gas industry. Through the Program, EPA works with companies that produce, process, and transmit and distribute natural gas to identify and promote the implementation of cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
A network of organizations working with the National Climate Assessment (NCA) to engage producers and users of climate assessment information across the United States.
The center provides analysis and resources on climate change science, technology, policy, markets, and initiatives through an extensive website.
This is a collaborative effort between EPA and the electric power industry to identify and implement cost-effective solutions to reduce sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions.
USGCRP coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. Thirteen federal departments and agencies participate in the USGCRP. The site provides access to up-to-date research and publications concerning global warming as well as regional and sector climate information.
An EPA-led partnership of western cities and states that are developing and sharing ways to integrate lifecycle materials management policies and practices into climate actions.
The WCI is a collaboration of independent jurisdictions who commit to work together to identify, evaluate, and implement policies to tackle climate change at a regional level.
WRI is an environmental think tank that goes beyond research to find practical ways to protect the earth and improve people's lives. AS one of their four programmatic goals, WRI seeks to " Protect the global climate system from further harm due to emissions of greenhouse gases and help humanity and the natural world adapt to unavoidable climate change."
Lessons Learned
Agency Guidance
Section 8 of EO 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance required each Federal agency to develop, implement, and annually update an integrated Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The initial plan was submitted to CEQ by 2 June 2010. This plan prioritizes agency actions for achieving environmental, economic, and energy goals detailed in EO 13514.
This FEMP guidance provides and overview of the basic of greenhouse gases, the goals and requirements for agency GHG management, ongoing guidance activities conducted by FEMP and common protocols for calculating greenhouse gas inventories. Also addressed are FEMP services, technical assistance, and training available to help Federal agencies calculate and manage their greenhouse gas emissions. Lastly, the site includes FEMP and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory contacts related to Federal greenhouse gas.
Award Winners
The EPA Climate Protection Awards were given out between 1998 and 2009 to recognize exceptional innovation, personal dedication and technical achievements in climate protection. Awards were presented in the corporate, individual, government sector, and non-profit categories.
The ENERGY STAR CHP Award recognizes projects that require at least 5 percent less fuel than state-of-the-art separate heat and power generation.
Case Studies
Issued April 18, 2008, this document summarizes the results of DOE research concerning biofuels and greenhouse gases.
This GAO report, issued 7 October 2009, includes several case studies and examples of how federal, local, state and even international governments can effectively move forward to protect coastlines, infrastructure, and citizens from rising sea levels, intensifying storms, droughts, and other impacts from global warming. The report number is GAO-10-113.
This report, dated March 2011, presents a series of case studies describing the approaches currently being taken by four water utilities in the United States to assess their vulnerability to climate change. The case studies illustrate different approaches that reflect specific local needs and conditions, existing vulnerabilities, local partnerships, and available information about climate change. Information from these case studies will be useful to water utilities and other members of the water resources community to inform the development of strategies for understanding and responding to climate change. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Development.
Issued by EPA, this 2011 document is subtitled "A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs" and is a part of the Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series. This guide describes how local governments can lead by example and achieve multiple benefits by improving the energy efficiency of their new, existing, and renovated facilities and their day-to-day operations. It is designed to be used by facility managers, energy and environment staff, other local government agencies, and mayors and city councils.
The publications and tools on this page are compiled from across the State and Local Climate and Energy Web site for quick access. Descriptions of the resources, suggestions for their use, and additional case studies and links to other resources can be found on the topic pages of the Web site.
Published by the U.S. Global Change Research Program in 2009, the report summarizes the science and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It focuses on climate change impacts in different regions of the U.S. and on various aspects of society and the economy such as energy, water, agriculture, and health. It's also a report written in plain language, with the goal of better informing public and private decision making at all levels.
May 21, 2010, this document was prepared to assist Federal agencies in implementing Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. This document outlines the recommended steps for cost-effective creation of a bicycle-friendly environment for employees at and visitors to Federal facilities, thereby reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). This document was developed by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive with assistance from the Inter-Agency Task Force on Bicycling and Active Transportation.
This compilation presents best practices and lessons learned that are taken from the CRE annual progress report for the Southeastern US Climate Ready Estuaries in 2014.
This report, dated 2007 from the World Resources Institute (WRI), examines the feasibility of achieving significant emissions reductions from the proliferation of biofuels and concludes that biofuels are not a complete, nor even the primary, solution to our transport fuel needs.
This report, dated March 2011, provides information on the effectiveness of travel efficiency measures for reducing criteria and greenhouse gas emissions at the national scale. The report describes an approach that uses regionally derived travel model data and other travel activity information, and sketch-planning analysis to estimate potential emission reductions from urban areas of varying size and characteristics. The results are applied to other urban areas in the U.S. of similar characteristic to estimate national emission reductions.
Developed by the Canadian Institute for Research on Public Policy, this article outlines Canadian successes in reducing greenhouse gases.
EPA has established several voluntary programs to provide technical assistance to companies wishing to reduce their waste and GHG emissions. A sampling of innovative GHG partnerships forged through WasteWise and other voluntary programs is presented below.
Published March 19, 2008, this European Environment Agency report outlines six successful examples of greenhouse gas reduction in the road transport sector.
This report provides information on the costs and benefits of green infrastructure solutions for bolstering local adaptation to climate change.
This document, dated March 2011, provides information on transportation control measures that have been implemented across the country for a variety of purposes, including reducing criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. The document describes the rocesses used to develop and implement the strategies and, where available, their effectiveness.
This April 2010 Department of Commerce report analyzes energy-related CO2 emissions and intensities for 349 industries, the government, and households for the 1998 to 2006 period. This report shows how energy efficiency has changed over the past decade across industry sectors, indicating that some areas of the economy have shown substantial decreases in their CO2 emissions while others have made less progress. The methodology of the report provides a way to measure changes in energy efficiency over time as policies change.
This booklet, based on the National Research Council report, "Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts Over Decades to Millennia (2011)", outlines the scientific information that makes it clear that emission reductions today matter in determining impacts that will be experienced over the next few decades and into the coming centuries and millennia. The booklet explains how policy choices can be informed by recent advances in climate science that show the relationships among increasing carbon dioxide, global warming, related physical changes, and resulting impacts.
Collaboration Tools
Sponsored by P2Rx, this is a Wiki addressing the following areas: GHG environmental impact, GHG best practices, GHG terminology, GHG gas calculators/resources, and references.
This document was designed to provide organizations with a regularly updated and easy-to-use set of default emission factors for organizational greenhouse gas reporting. The document includes updated emission factors collated from both EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and Climate Leaders technical guidance. The most recent version of the Emission Factors Hub (April 2014) includes updates to emission factors for stationary and mobile combustion sources, new electricity emission factors from EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides links to progress data tables illustrating Federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories as reported by the Federal agencies.
Prepared annually by EPA, the national greenhouse gas inventory report presents estimates of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks beginning with the year 1990. This report also discusses the methods and data used to calculate the emission estimates.
This report presents WRI's CO2 inventory for specific calendar years. Reports are available for 2003 and forward. It details emission sources included and excluded from the inventory, describes how emissions data were collected and calculated, summarizes how emissions have changed over time, and describes WRI's GHG management activities.
Training, Presentations, and Briefings
Projects can reduce or avoid GHG emissions that cause climate change. These actions can reduce the overall emissions of an organization to create tradable creates to offsets emissions in order to become carbon neutral. This training course covers basics of GHG accounting for projects.
Offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), this course will provide participants with an understanding of the value proposition for GHG management, fundamental accounting principles, disclosure, verification and reporting frameworks, and common practices for leveraging GHG data.
This course covers the basics of GHG accounting for organizations. The course materials are based on the WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol Corporate Standard while referring to ISO 14064.
Offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), this course will provide a basic overview of sea level rise in the context of climate change, including the basics of temporal and regional changes, the forcing mechanisms for sea level rise in the past and projections for the future. Attendees will gain a fundamental understanding of the observing systems used to measure sea level change, and how various government agencies are planning for the impacts of sea level rise. Learners will also get an overview of the concept of risk management in the face of sea level rise, looking at various adaptation strategies, and discussing the concept of how to build resilience. Attendees will participate in an instructor-led discussion on what steps they might take to help mitigate impacts of sea level rise in their communities.
This is the first education module in a series of three developed by the USDA's Climate Change Resources Center. It gives a brief overview of the climate system, greenhouse gases, climate models, current climate change impacts, and future projections. There is a 14-question activity at the end of the module, and users who complete the activity will receive a printable certificate with their name and the date completed. The expected time commitment for this module is about 20 minutes, plus the activity. Time spent exploring the many outward links and interactive features within the module will be at the user's discretion.
The U.S. FWS is offering this course designed to guide conservation and resource management practitioners through two essential elements in the design of climate adaptation plans and provide guidance in identifying which species or habitats are likely to be most strongly affected by projected changes. Vulnerability assessments are a critical tool in undertaking any climate change planning or implementation.
The U.S. EPA, in partnership with six other federal agencies (National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management), developed this toolkit to aid educators in teaching how climate change is affecting our nation's wildlife and public lands, and how everyone can become "climate stewards." This kit is designed for classroom teachers and informal educators in parks, refuges, forest lands, nature centers, zoos, aquariums, science centers, etc. The new case studies and activities have been reviewed by scientists and educators in all 7 agencies involved in the creation of the kit.
Presentation given by Gary Clow, Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, during the 2010 DOI Conference on the Environment in April 2010.
The Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO) is offering a series of 2-day training academies to enable attendees to complete all required training CCO Training Bootcamps (including electives) for the Climate Governance Certificate. These academies will provide curriculum on topics including understanding climate science and variability, identifying climate hazards and conducting vulnerability assessments, basics of greenhouse gas accounting, the food-water-energy nexus, and fundamental governance and stakeholder engagement strategies.
Climate Insights 101 is a short course series designed to provide users with an in-depth understanding of climate science and related issues. 101 is produced as a series of modules, each with several animated lessons. The course is offered by the Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions
This training series consists of three modules designed to help create a Great Lakes region that is "climate ready." Toward this end, these modules provide stakeholders and decision makers with clear information about Great Lakes climate, as well as what we need to adapt to, why, and how. This project was sponsored by the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network and the NOAA Great Lakes Regional Collaboration Team.
FEMP offers webinars, classroom training, and on-demand training addressing issues such as lighting, energy efficient products, fleet management, renewable energy, greenhouse gases, and water efficiency.
EPA Powerpoint presentation providing an overview of the mandatory reporting rule.
This course was designed to provide land managers with a range of presentations by experts on carbon science, management, and policy. The three themes of the course are "The Carbon Cycle and the Role of Experts," "Carbon and Wildland Management," "Carbon Assessments and Markets." Fifteen presentations are included here, accompanied by references and links, and a set of quizzes on the material.
Presented at the June 2009 Federal Environmental Symposium - East. Several top-down GHG inventory approaches have been developed within the Federal community. Bottom-up GHG inventory efforts are also emerging at Federal facilities. Together, they ultimately can produce more robust and comprehensive institutional GHG management.
Energy, water and food/agriculture systems are inextricably linked. Understanding the intersection of these three systems is important since a disruption can present serious risks to an organization and lead to cascading impacts. This session will cover the linkages of these systems as well as the impacts, risks, and opportunities associated with the energy, water and agriculture/food nexus, and how it relates to greenhouse gases. Bootcamp instructors will provide examples of how these interdependencies can play out in a warming world. This course is offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO).
This course will train experts in GHG accounting for energy efficiency projects.
The objective of the course is to provide an understanding of the current status of accounting approaches for forest and other land use projects and to go through a process of how GHG accounting for forest and other land use projects is done.
This course provides comprehensive and detailed guidance on developing forest GHG inventories.
This course will train experts in preparing inventories and emission reduction projects for landfill gas methane sites.
This course provides training to individuals who wish to be involved in the implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects in the technical area TA1.2: Energy generation from renewable energy sources. The course focuses on hydropower and wind energy projects.
In 2007, the Forest Service was the first federal land management agency to join the EPA Climate Leaders program. As part of this affiliation, the Forest Service spent a year developing a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the six National Forests in the Greater Yellowstone Area, which is one of the largest intact ecosystems in the continental U.S. This inventory, which focuses on anthropogenic emissions from the agency's operations, is the first of its kind in the nation. This was presented at the June 2009 Federal Environmental Symposium – East.
This course includes: an overview of existing GHG verification approaches; a step by step process for planning, executing, and completing a GHG verification; and reference case studies.
Offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), in this bootcamp participants will receive an introduction to available community-relevant information sources and tools, climate data sets, and a template to help assess an organization's (or region's) climate risks and current resilience. Attendees will learn how to define climate-related hazards, recognize differential impacts of those hazards, identify existing and future risks, fully understand their current vulnerabilities and strengths, identify and utilize stakeholder partnerships to inform the decision making process, and evaluate the most critical vulnerabilities for their organization.
Presentation given during the 2010 DOI Conference on the Environment in April 2010.
Presented by the EPA's Watershed Academy, this module is based on EPA's National Water Program Strategy: Response to Climate Change.
Presentation given during the 2010 DOI Conference on the Environment in April 2010.
Offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), this boot camp will provide participants with an overview of the current state of knowledge about Earth's climate system, how climate is projected to change this century, practical implications of these projections for different socioeconomic sectors, and the basics how effective communication and engagement can help mobilize your organization for action. Attendees will learn how to use climate projections to identify climate related risks and vulnerabilities, and understand how science-based information and tools are being used for strategic planning. Participants will go through an interactive demonstration to apply what they have learned throughout the course.
Presented at the June 2009 Federal Environmental Symposium – East. This presentation will explore the process of quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and calculating the carbon footprint and ecological footprint of a large, industrial government facility. Skills and tools to complete your own calculation will be introduced to a user model developed by Sandia National Laboratories to calculate the carbon and ecological footprint of their facility.
The Pew Center convened a workshop addressing the use of cost-benefit analysis in determining climate change costs. A major focus of the workshop was the inadequacy of traditional analytical tools, such as CBA, for guiding policy decisions about non-incremental changes in economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions. Many participants recommended a risk-management approach that views climate stabilization as insurance against uncertain but intolerable outcomes. The workshop report contains an extended summary of 17 presentations and the full text of nine background papers by experts in climate science and economics.
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Last Updated: February 13, 2017