The clean up or restoration of land, buildings and waterways which have previously been contaminated. This includes the remediation or disposal of the contaminated material, the technologies to be used in performing cleanup, and standards to prevent further contamination. An important partner for the cleanup of Federal facilities is the EPA's Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO). For additional information specific to Federal Facilities, see the Compendium of Federal Facilities Cleanup Information.
In terms of air emissions, site remediation is defined as one or more activities or processes used to remove, destroy, degrade, transform, immobilize, or otherwise manage remediation material. The monitoring or measuring of contamination levels in environmental media using wells or by sampling is not considered to be a site remediation (40 CFR 63.7957).
Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)
One piece of the BRAC process involves evaluation for potential cleanup.
A number of different hazardous materials may be stored at and used at cleanup sites. These materials potentially include items such as: fuel, neutralizing agents; chemical catalysts, paints, and solvents.
National Priorities List (NPL) Sites
The NPL is the list of national priorities among the known releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants throughout the United States and its territories. The NPL is intended primarily to guide the EPA in determining which sites warrant further investigation.
When there is a hazardous substance contaminated site which might require CERCLA response actions, a removal site evaluation is required to be done. What actions are required to be taken are based on the results of the site evaluation.
This includes stormwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage over the surface of the facility whether the surface be dirt, asphalt, concrete, wood, etc.