Within this act, 16 U.S. Code (USC) 431-433, the President of the United States is authorized to declare historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest, that are situated upon the lands owned or controlled by the Federal Government, to be national monuments (16 USC 431). Permits for the examination of ruins, the excavation of archaeological sites, and the gathering of objects of antiquity upon the lands under their respective jurisdictions, may be granted by the Secretaries of the Interior (SOI), Agriculture, and Army to institutions they may deem properly qualified to conduct such examination, excavation, or gathering, subject to such rules and regulations as they may prescribe (16 USC 432).
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