The Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Program Area includes the latest guidance and information resources to aid Federal facilities in managing greenhouse gas emissions. This encompasses current guidance, policies, and trends related to climate change/global warming, calculation of carbon footprints, and the application of offsets to reduce carbon footprints.
The primary 6 GHGs of concern are: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. The main sources of these gases due to human activity are as follows:
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2): burning of fossil fuels and deforestation;
- Methane (CH4): livestock enteric fermentation (i.e. cows) and manure management, paddy rice farming, land use and wetland changes, pipeline losses, and covered vented landfill emissions;
- Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs): these items are of concern from the standpoint of global warming and the Kyoto Protocol;
- Perfluorocarbons (PFCs): these are being used in refrigerating units as replacements for CFCs;
- Nitrous Oxide (N2O): this is used for its anesthetic and analgesic effects as well as being used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines;
- Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6): used in the electrical industry as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage (35 kV and above) circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, often referred to as SF6. SF6 is also employed as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. See the DOE Safety Bulletin for more information on SF6.
Executive Order 14057: Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability was signed by President Biden on 8 December 2021.
In relation to energy and environmental performance, EO 14057 states that it is the policy of the United States that the Federal Government leads by example to achieve a carbon pollution-free electricity sector by 2035 and net-zero emissions economy-wide by no later than 2050. Through a whole-of-government approach, the United States will demonstrate how innovation and environmental stewardship can protect our planet, safeguard Federal investments against the effects of climate change, respond to the needs of all of America's communities, and expand American technologies, industries, and jobs.
EO 14057 directs federal facilities to transition Federal procurement and operations towards a focus on clean zero-emission technologies, this includes:
- Reducing Agency Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Each agency shall reduce its scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas emissions, as defined by the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance, by setting and meeting targets for fiscal year 2030 measured from a fiscal year 2008 baseline.
- Transitioning to 100 Percent Carbon Pollution-Free Electricity. Each agency shall increase its percentage use of carbon pollution-free electricity, so that it constitutes 100 percent of facility electrical energy use on an annual basis and seek to match use on an hourly basis to achieve 50 percent 24/7 carbon pollution-free electricity, by fiscal year 2030.
- Transitioning to a Zero-Emission Fleet. Each agency's light-duty vehicle acquisitions shall be zero-emission vehicles by the end of fiscal year 2027. Each agency with a fleet comprising at least 20 vehicles shall develop and annually update a zero-emission fleet strategy that shall include optimizing fleet size and composition; deploying zero-emission vehicle refueling infrastructure; and maximizing acquisition and deployment of zero emission light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles where the General Services Administration (GSA) offers one or more zero-emission vehicle options for that vehicle class.
- Achieving Net-Zero Emissions Buildings, Campuses, and Installations. Each agency shall achieve net-zero emissions across its portfolio of buildings, campuses, and installations by 2045 and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent from buildings, campuses, and installations by 2032 from 2008 levels, prioritizing improvement of energy efficiency and the elimination of onsite fossil fuel use.
- Sustainable Acquisition and Procurement. CEQ shall consider establishing Federal food procurement policies to reduce associated greenhouse gas emissions and drive sustainability in the Federal food supply chain.
- Adapting the Federal Government to the Impacts of Climate Change. Consistent with its mission, each agency shall: develop or revise polices and processes to promote climate resilient investment that advances adaptation to climate change and protects public health and the environment; conduct climate adaptation analysis and planning for climate-informed financial and management decisions and program implementation; reform agency policies and funding programs that are maladaptive to climate change and increase the vulnerability of communities, natural or built systems, economic sectors, and natural resources to climate impacts, or related risks; and develop and enhance tools that assess climate change impacts and support climate adaptation planning and implementation.
The Implementing Instructions for EO 14057 issued August 2022 provides instructions to Federal agencies regarding the implementation of EO 14057 including agency planning, reporting requirements, and accountability.
E.O. 14057 establishes a policy that the Federal Government will lead by example to help transition the Nation to a net-zero emissions economy by 2050 by setting governmentwide goals for a 65 percent reduction in scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions by 2030 from 2008 levels and achieving net-zero emissions procurement. To achieve these government-wide goals, the E.O. requires agencies to set individual scope 1 and scope 2 reduction targets, as well as scope 3 reduction targets, and meet building, fleet, and operational goals aimed at reducing these emissions.
GHG emissions are categorized as (Scope 1, 2, or 3 and defined as follows:
- Scope 1 emissions: GHG emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by a Federal Agency (e.g. vehicles and equipment, stationary sources, on-site landfills and wastewater treatment, fugitive emissions).
- Scope 2 emissions: GHG emissions resulting from the generation of electricity, heat, or steam purchased by a Federal agency (e.g. purchased electricity, purchased heating/cooling, purchased steam).
- Scope 3 emissions: GHG emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by a Federal agency but related to agency activities (e.g. transmission and distribution losses from purchased electricity, business travel, employee commuting, contracted waste disposal).
: Agencies will set individual 2030 GHG reduction targets for scope 1, scope 2, and scope 3 emissions.
For Scope 1 and 2 Emissions: Agencies must report scope 1 and 2 emissions as part of the Annual Energy Management Data Report, due annually on 31 January to DOE-FEMP.
Consistent with sections 102 and 202 of E.O. 14057 and the approach taken under previous Executive Orders, agencies must measure scope 1 and 2 reductions from a FY 2008 baseline. Consistent with section 509(c) of the E.O. and section IV.A.3 of M-22-06, DOE-FEMP must develop and provide agencies with agency scope 1 and scope 2 GHG target setting tools and instructions. The tools should take into account projected GHG reductions resulting from each agencies achievement of their CFE, ZEV, and building--related GHG goals.
For Scope 3 Emissions: Consistent with section 302 of E.O. 14057, GSA, in coordination with CEQ and OMB, must assess systems and methodologies to track and report government-wide and agency-specific scope 3 emissions. When directed, each agency must develop and submit a FY 2030 target, along with annual progress targets, based on CEQ guidance.
Metrics: Percentage reduction of emissions measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2e) from the baseline year as established by the E.O.
Progress Milestones: Agencies will set net annual progress targets based on CEQ guidance.
Consistent with section 503 of E.O. 14057 and section IV.A of M-22-06, agencies must track progress and provide reporting on GHG. Agency progress and performance data for GHG will be collected through established Federal reports and systems including:
- Annual Energy Management Data Report (Annual Energy Report): Agencies submit this annual report to DOE-FEMP. It includes reporting of annual energy, and water use, CFE, investments in facility efficiency, new building design compliance, metering, and GHG emissions data.
- Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST): DOE's Idaho National Laboratory, in coordination with GSA, maintains this system for data on vehicle inventories,
acquisitions, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations, fuel use, and mileage.
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This act was signed into law on August 8, 2005. The Act contains a multitude of provisions covering energy production, distribution, storage, efficiency, conservation, and research. Title XVI of the act addresses climate change.
Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad
January 27, 2021
The EO has three overarching objectives 1) promote safe global temperature, 2) increase climate resilience, and 3) support financial a pathway toward low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. The EO reinstates the Presidential Memorandum of September 21, 2016 (Climate Change and National Security), establishes the Climate Policy Office within the Executive Office of the President and establishes a National Climate Task Force. In addition, the EO aims to use Federal procurement to support robust climate action including a carbon pollution-free electricity sector, no later than 2035 and clean and zero-emission vehicles for Federal, State, local, and Tribal government fleets.
Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability
December 8, 2021
President Biden has signed an Executive Order that demonstrates how the United States will leverage its scale and procurement power to lead by example in tackling the climate crisis. The executive order will reduce emissions across federal operations, invest in American clean energy industries and manufacturing, and create clean, healthy, and resilient communities.
Strengthening the Nation's Forests, Communities, and Local Economies
April 27, 2022
This EO directs federal agencies to pursue science-based, sustainable forest and land management; conserve America's mature and old-growth forests on Federal lands; invest in forest health and restoration; support indigenous traditional ecological knowledge and cultural and subsistence practices; honor Tribal treaty rights; and deploy climate-smart forestry practices and other nature-based solutions to improve the resilience of our lands, waters, wildlife, and communities in the face of increasing disturbances and chronic stress arising from climate impacts.
Implementation of the Energy and Infrastructure Provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022
September 12, 2022
This EO lists the administration's eight goals to guide implementation of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) and authorizes the new White House Office on Clean Energy Innovation and Implementation to coordinate that process.
This CEQ guidance, dated 17 January 2016, provides the definitions of Scope 1, 2, and 3, greenhouse gas emissions in Section 2.2. EO 14057 refers federal agencies to the definitions in this guidance for Scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas.
Includes answers to common questions about using the Greenhosue gas reporting tool, guidance on rules and proposals related to GHG reporting , and guidance specific to industrial categories.
New as of 18 March 2021, EPA's Climate Change website will guide the public to a range of information, including greenhouse gas emissions data, climate change impacts, scientific reports, and existing climate programs within EPA and across the federal government.
In this fact sheet the Administration is announcing new actions across agencies to support American leadership on clean manufacturing. The industrial sector is also central to tackling the climate crisis, as it is currently responsible for nearly a third of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. By helping manufacturers use clean energy, efficiency upgrades, and other innovative technologies to reduce emissions, the Administration is supporting cleaner industry that can produce the next generation of products and materials for a net-zero economy. These same manufacturing improvements will also protect public health, by reducing releases of air and water pollutants and toxic materials that disproportionately harm low-income households and communities of color.
Federal agencies were required to develop an adaptation and resilience plan to address their most significant climate risks and vulnerabilities. As outlined in EO 14057 and accompanying Federal Sustainability Plan, agencies will implement the actions identified in their Climate Adaptation and Resilience Plans and will provide annual updates on progress made.
This standard specifies principles and requirements at the organization level for the quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals. It includes requirements for the design, development, management, reporting, and verification of an organization's GHG inventory.
This standard specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions or removal enhancements. It includes requirements for planning a GHG project, identifying and selecting GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs relevant to the project and baseline scenario, monitoring, quantifying, documenting and reporting GHG project performance and managing data quality.
This standard specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance for those conducting or managing the validation and/or verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) assertions. It can be applied to organizational or GHG project quantification, including GHG quantification, monitoring and reporting carried out in accordance with ISO 14064-1 or ISO 14064-2. This standard also specifies requirements for selecting GHG validators/verifiers, establishing the level of assurance, objectives, criteria and scope, determining the validation/verification approach, assessing GHG data, information, information systems and controls, evaluating GHG assertions and preparing validation/verification statements.
This standard specifies principles and requirements for bodies that undertake validation or verification of greenhouse gas (GHG) assertions.
This agreement, signed 12 December 2015, identifies global steps to be taken in order to improve the global air quality.
This is a mandatory, market-based effort in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ten Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states will cap and then reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector 10% by 2018.
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A newsletter produced quarterly by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG). The newsletter aims to provide general information on new developments in the field of greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation.
This website serves as a hub for recent climate-related work at the Academies. It highlights climate studies that have been produced by committees of leading scientists and other experts convened by the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and numerous other entities within the National Research Council. At this site, you will find brief summaries, booklets, videos, and other resources related to these reports. You will also find information about significant ongoing climate activities across the Academies.
Sponsored by the U.S. DOT, the clearinghouse is designed as a one-stop source of information on transportation and climate change issues. It includes information on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, analytic methods and tools, GHG reduction strategies, potential impacts of climate change on transportation infrastructure, and approaches for integrating climate change considerations into transportation decision making.
This annual report is part of the EPA's commitment to providing the public with transparent information about new light-duty vehicle GHG emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers' performance in meeting the agency's GHG emissions standards. This report includes content previously published in two separate reports, the Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Report, and the GHG Manufacturer Performance Report.
ACCO was founded in August 2008 and incorporated in Washington, DC in January 2009 as a 501(c)(6) non-profit corporation. ACCO's mission is advance the knowledge and skills of those dedicated to developing and directing climate change strategies in the public and private sectors, and to establish a flexible and robust forum for collaboration between climate change officers.
A nonprofit collaboration among North American states, provinces, territories and Native Sovereign Nations that sets consistent and transparent standards to calculate, verify and publicly report greenhouse gas emissions into a single registry.
a voluntary program to reduce the environmental impact of power generation by promoting the use of CHP. CHP is an efficient, clean and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source. The Partnership works closely with energy users, the CHP industry, state and local governments and other stakeholders to support the development of new projects and promote their energy, environmental and economic benefits.
The GHG Institute is a non-profit organization founded in 2007 to build the GHG management infrastructure of the future, with a focus on training and supporting a global community of qualified professionals to work on GHG measurement, accounting, auditing and management.
The Joint Office of Energy and Transportation was created through the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL) to facilitate collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Transportation. The Joint Office will align resources and expertise across the two departments toward leveraged outcomes. The office will be a critical component in the implementation of the BIL, providing support and expertise to a multitude of programs that seek to deploy a network of electric vehicle chargers, zero-emission fueling infrastructure, and zero-emission transit and school buses.
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This report, dated March 2011, presents a series of case studies describing the approaches currently being taken by four water utilities in the United States to assess their vulnerability to climate change. The case studies illustrate different approaches that reflect specific local needs and conditions, existing vulnerabilities, local partnerships, and available information about climate change. Information from these case studies will be useful to water utilities and other members of the water resources community to inform the development of strategies for understanding and responding to climate change. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Development.
Published by the U.S. Global Change Research Program in 2009, the report summarizes the science and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It focuses on climate change impacts in different regions of the U.S. and on various aspects of society and the economy such as energy, water, agriculture, and health. It's also a report written in plain language, with the goal of better informing public and private decision making at all levels.
May 21, 2010, this document was prepared to assist Federal agencies in implementing Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. This document outlines the recommended steps for cost-effective creation of a bicycle-friendly environment for employees at and visitors to Federal facilities, thereby reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). This document was developed by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive with assistance from the Inter-Agency Task Force on Bicycling and Active Transportation.
This compilation presents best practices and lessons learned that are taken from the CRE annual progress report for the Southeastern US Climate Ready Estuaries in 2014.
In 2010, the EPA released a life-cycle analysis of GHG emissions associated with the production and combustion of corn ethanol. Now 2018 new data allowed USDA to examine the emissions pathway corn-ethanol has actually followed since 2010.
This document, dated March 2011, provides information on transportation control measures that have been implemented across the country for a variety of purposes, including reducing criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. The document describes the rocesses used to develop and implement the strategies and, where available, their effectiveness.
This document was designed to provide organizations with a regularly updated and easy-to-use set of default emission factors for organizational greenhouse gas reporting. The document includes updated emission factors collated from both EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and Climate Leaders technical guidance. The most recent version of the Emission Factors Hub (April 2014) includes updates to emission factors for stationary and mobile combustion sources, new electricity emission factors from EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (GHG Inventory)
This inventory presents a national-level overview of annual greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2020. The GHG Inventory covers seven key greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride. In addition to tracking U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, the Inventory also calculates carbon dioxide that is removed from the atmosphere through the uptake of carbon in forests and other vegetation.
This FEMP website reflects Federal energy and water consumption data and includes links to GHG inventory data, energy use and cost, water use consumption data, and Agency progress on metering goals.
Across the United States, many states are developing and publishing state level GHG inventories on a regular basis. This website provides official state ghg inventories where available.
EPA's State Inventory and Projection Tool is an interactive spreadsheet model designed to help states develop greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories and was developed to lessen the time it takes to develop an inventory (collecting data, identifying emission factors, etc.). The tool has two components: the state inventory tool and the projection tool. tool.
This report is a follow-on to the 2019 EPA technical report, Global Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Projections & Mitigation Potential: 2015-2050. This report provides U.S. domestic technical and economic mitigation estimates of non-CO2 GHGs from anthropogenic sources at the state-level. The analysis provides information that can be used to understand sub-national contributions of GHG emissions and mitigation opportunities. This web-based summary is intended to provide analysis of the abatement potential and costs of implementing specific abatement technologies. The analysis and accompanying dataset provides information that can be used by state and local-policymakers to understand mitigation opportunities in areas that may have not received the same attention as electricity generation and transportation.
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EPA is providing access on this website to some of the highest demand air pollution online courses. This content will be updated further during early 2021. The courses are read only, and you can freely navigate within each course. Progress within a course can be tracked through your web browser cookies.
Projects can reduce or avoid GHG emissions that cause climate change. These actions can reduce the overall emissions of an organization to create tradable creates to offsets emissions in order to become carbon neutral. This training course covers basics of GHG accounting for projects.
Offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), this course will provide participants with an understanding of the value proposition for GHG management, fundamental accounting principles, disclosure, verification and reporting frameworks, and common practices for leveraging GHG data.
This course covers the basics of GHG accounting for organizations. The course materials are based on the WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol Corporate Standard while referring to ISO 14064.
Offered by the Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO), this course guides participants through the process steps required to establish and implement a GHG reduction goal. The instructors will provide brief case studies highlighting how their respective organizations adapted process elements to meet their business objectives. Key questions that will be addressed include determining objectives, establishing a baseline, establishing a business as usual forecast, setting GHG reduction targets, selling to senior management, and how to devise a viable implementation plan. The instructors will also provide direction on applicable tools and references, and they will lead discussion on how to overcome some of the most challenging obstacles.
This course will train experts in GHG accounting for energy efficiency projects.
The objective of the course is to provide an understanding of the current status of accounting approaches for forest and other land use projects and to go through a process of how GHG accounting for forest and other land use projects is done.
This course provides comprehensive and detailed guidance on developing forest GHG inventories.
This course will train experts in preparing inventories and emission reduction projects for landfill gas methane sites.
This course provides training to individuals who wish to be involved in the implementation of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects in the technical area TA1.2: Energy generation from renewable energy sources. The course focuses on hydropower and wind energy projects.
This course includes: an overview of existing GHG verification approaches; a step by step process for planning, executing, and completing a GHG verification; and reference case studies.
Climate change is already affecting the ability of individuals to participate in outdoor recreation. In the coming decades these impacts are expected to become more noticeable. Some geographic regions and outdoor recreation activities will see increased participation rates while others will be negatively impacted, potentially significantly. These impacts will have numerous ripple effects, including shifts in the economic vitality of recreation-dependent communities to the sustainability of existing management approaches used by local, state, and federal agencies. This webinar will present the state- of-the science about what is known about how climate change will affect outdoor recreation across the United States. The presentation will highlight specific geographic regions and outdoor recreation activities that will continue to be impacted in the near future. The presentation will finish with a discussion of solutions that local, state, and federal management agencies can put in place to adapt to future impacts.
Learn more about EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and viewing published GHG data using EPA's GHGRP resources.
A series of webinars for federal contractors on managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is now available on YouTube. The webinars were developed by EPA and the General Services Administration (GSA) to help federal contractors aid the federal government in meeting its goal of net-zero emissions from procurement by measuring and publicly disclosing their GHGs, setting science-based targets and identifying opportunities to reduce climate impacts. Read more about the Biden-Harris administration's goals for sustainable procurement in Executive Order 14057 and the accompanying Federal Sustainability Plan.
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