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Executive Orders

Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment
13 May 1971
This EO states that the Federal Government shall provide leadership in preserving, restoring and maintaining the historic and cultural environment of the Nation. Agencies of the executive branch of the Government shall: (1) administer the cultural properties under their control in a spirit of stewardship and trusteeship for future generations, (2) initiate measures necessary to direct their policies, plans and programs in such a way that federally owned sites, structures, and objects of historical, architectural or archaeological significance are preserved, restored, and maintained for the inspiration and benefit of the people, and (3), in consultation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (16 U.S.C. 470i), institute procedures to assure that Federal plans and programs contribute to the preservation and enhancement of non-federally owned sites, structures and objects of historical, architectural or archaeological significance.
Use of Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) on The Public Lands
24 May 1977
Use of Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) on The Public Lands; amended by EO 11989 Use of Off-Raid Vehicles on Public Lands (1977) and EO 12608 Elimination of unncessary Executive orders and technical amendments to others (1987) This EO specifies that ORVs may not be used without special use and location designation.
Floodplain Management
24 May 1977, amended by EO 12148, 20 July 1979
This EO implements NEPA, the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973.
Use of Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) on The Public Lands
24 May 1977
This EO specifies that ORVs may not be used without special use and location designation.
Protection of Wetlands
24 May 1977 and amended by EO 12608
Under this EO each Federal agency must provide leadership and take action to minimize the destruction, loss or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values of wetlands. Each agency, to the extent permitted by law, must avoid undertaking or providing assistance for new construction located in wetlands unless the head of the agency finds: there is no practical alternative to such construction; the proposed action includes all practical measures to minimize harm to wetlands that may result from such use. In making this finding the head of the agency may take into account economic, environmental and other pertinent factors (Section 2(a)). Each agency must also provide opportunity for early public review of any plans or proposals for new construction in wetlands (Section 2(b)).
Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards
13 October 1978
This EO requires all Federal agencies to be in compliance with environmental laws and fully cooperate with EPA, State, interstate, and local agencies to prevent, control, and abate environmental pollution. EO 13148 revoked Section 1-4 titled ‘‘Pollution Control Plan.’’ No other portions of this EO were revoked by EO 13148.
Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions
4 January 1979
This EO requires Federal agencies with facilities located outside the United States to consider the impact of major actions on the environment. The EO identifies four categories of “major” actions and requires Federal agencies with facilities overseas to establish procedures, in consultation with the Department of State and Council on Environmental Quality, for implementing the Order’s requirements.
Offshore Oil Spill Pollution
February 26, 1979; amended by EO 12418, 5 May 1983 and revoked by EO 12777
This EO delegates authorities of Outer Continental Shelf Land Acts Amendments of 1978 to the following agencies: the Department of Commerce or the Department of Interior administers natural resources; Federal Maritime Commission administers vessels and penalties on vessels; and the Department of Transportation administers offshore facilities. This order was amended by EO 12418.
Management of Federal Legal Resources
18 July 1979; amended EO 12608 and EO 13286
This EO establishes a Federal Legal Council consisting of the Attorney General and 15 agencies to encourage coordination and communication among Federal legal offices. E.O. 12146 also creates a process to mediate legal disputes between agencies, creates a litigation notice system for civil litigation affecting the Federal government, and encourages agencies to release legal opinions that are statements or interpretation of agency policy, unless this would cause demonstrable harm.
Transfer of Functions Relating to Financial Responsibility of Vessels for Pollution Liability
5 May 1983; Revoked by EO 12777
This EO amends EO 12123 to establish Federal agency authority to respond to discharges or the substantial threat of discharge of oil and other hazardous materials from vessels into U.S.-owned waters or shorelines. Responsibility for enforcing the Oil Pollution Act is given to the U.S. Coast Guard.
Superfund Implementation
23 January 1987 and amended by EO 13016
This EO and EO 13016 are the implementing orders for CERCLA. As such, the orders delegate certain CERCLA authorities and responsibilities to EPA and other Federal agencies.
Implementation of §311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended, and the Oil Pollution Act 18 October 1991
Amended by: EO 13286
This EO implements the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 by outlining emergency response procedures for managing spills of oil and hazardous materials into the waters inside U.S. jurisdiction. EPA, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the Departments of Defense, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Energy participate in contingency planning.
Federal Use of Alternative Fueled Vehicles
21 April 1993
This EO requires Federal agencies to adopt aggressive plans to exceed the purchase requirements of alternative-fueled vehicles established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
Requiring Agencies to Purchase Energy Efficient Computer Equipment
21 April 1993; Revoked by: EO 13123, 3 June 1999
This EO direct the U.S. government to participate in the EPA ENERGY STAR computer program by agreeing to buy energy-efficient computers, monitors, and printers. To the extent possible, Federal agencies must purchase only computer equipment that meets ENERGY STAR requirements.
Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention
20 October 1993
This EO incorporates waste prevention and recycling in the agency's daily operations and work to increase and expand markets for recovered materials through greater Federal Government preference and demand for such products. It also promoted green procurement and created a Federal Environmental Executive and established high-level Environmental Executive positions within each agency. This EO was revoked by EO 13101.
Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations
11 February 1994
This EO requires Federal agencies to achieve environmental justice by identifying and addressing, as appropriate, any disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental impacts that their programs, policies, and activities may have on minority populations and low-income populations.
Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation at Federal Facilities
8 March 1994
This EO tasked agencies to perform energy and water audits at priority facilities. After the audit, agencies were to being the implementation of energy efficiency and water conservation projects. This EO was revoked by EO 13123.
Recreational Fisheries
7 June 1995
This EO mandates that Federal agencies, to the extent permitted by law and where practicable, improve the quality, function, and sustainable productivity and distribution of U.S. aquatic resources for increased recreational fishing opportunities. It also established the National Recreational Fisheries Coordination Council. It was amended by EO 13474 in 2008.
Locating Federal Facilities on Historic Properties in Our Nation’s Central Cities
21 May 1996
This EO states that the Federal Government shall utilize and maintain, wherever operationally appropriate and economically prudent, historic properties and districts, especially those located in central business areas.
Indian Sacred Sites
24 May 1996
This EO addresses the accommodation of sacred sites. Each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands is required, to the extent practicable, permitted by law, and not clearly inconsistent with agency functions, accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners. They shall also avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of the sacred sites. Where appropriate, agencies will maintain the confidentiality of sacred sites.
Amendment to EO 12580
28 August 1996
This EO amends EO 12580, which together, constitute the implementing orders for CERCLA. As such, the orders delegate certain CERCLA authorities and responsibilities to EPA and other Federal agencies.
Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition
September 1998
This EO strengthens and expands the Federal government’s commitment to recycling and buying recycled-content and environmentally preferable products. EO 13101 replaces EO 12873, Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention.
Invasive Species
3 February 1999
This EO addresses the prevention of the introduction of invasive species and provides for their control and minimization of the economic, ecological, and human health impacts the invasive species causes. The EO establishes the Invasive Species Council, which is responsible for the preparation and issuance of the National Invasive Species Management Plan, which details and recommends performance-oriented goals and objectives and specific measures of success for Federal Agencies. It was continued by EO 13708 in 2015.
Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy Management
3 Jun 1999
This EO calls for Federal agencies to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings, promote the use of renewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use in their buildings, among other energy related requirements.
Developing and Promoting Biobased Products and Bioenergy
12 Aug 1999
This EO stipulated that it is the policy of the Administration to develop a comprehensive national strategy, including research, development, and private sector incentives, to stimulate the creation and early adoption of technologies needed to make biobased products and bioenergy cost-competitive in large national and international markets.
Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management
21 Apr 2000
This EO mandates that environmental management considerations must be a fundamental and integral component of Federal Government policies, operations, planning, and management. The primary goal of this EO in the natural resources arena is for each agency to strive to promote the sustainable management of Federal facility lands through the implementation of cost-effective, environmentally sound landscaping practices, and programs to reduce adverse impacts to the natural environment.
Greening the Government Through Federal Fleet and Transportation Efficiency
21 Apr 2000
The purpose of this EO is to ensure that the Federal Government exercises leadership in the reduction of petroleum consumption through improvements in fleet fuel efficiency and the use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and alternative fuels.
Federal Workforce Transportation
21 April 2000
Under this EO, federal agencies shall implement a transportation fringe benefit program that offers qualified Federal employees the option to exclude from taxable wages and compensation,consistent with section 132 of title 26, United States Code, employee commuting costs incurred through the use of mass transportation and vanpools, not to exceed the maximum level allowed by law (26 U.S.C. 132 (f)(2)).
Marine Protected Areas
26 May 2000
This EO mandates strengthening the management, protection, and conservation of existing marine protected areas (MPA) and establishment of new or expanded MPAs; the development of a scientifically based, comprehensive national system of MPAs representing diverse U.S. marine ecosystems and the Nation's natural and cultural resources; and the avoiding causing harm to MPAs through federally conducted, approved, or funded activities. Continued by EO 13708, 2015.
Responsibilities of Federal Agencies To Protect Migratory Birds
10 January 2001
This EO directs executive departments and agencies to take certain actions to further implement the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The EO requires that each Federal agency taking actions that have, or are likely to have, a measurable negative effect on migratory bird populations is directed to develop and implement, within 2yr, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) that shall promote the conservation of migratory bird populations. Under this EO, the SOI will establish the interagency Council for the Conservation of Migratory Birds (Council) to oversee the implementation of the EO.
Trails for America in the 21st Century
18 January 2001
This EO mandates that Federal agencies will, to the extent permitted by law and where practicable--and in cooperation with Tribes, States, local governments, and interested citizen groups--protect, connect, promote, and assist trails of all types throughout the United States.
Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use
18 May 2001
This EO establishes the mandate for federal agencies to prepare a Statement of Energy Effects when undertaking certain agency actions.
Actions to Expedite Energy-Related Projects
18 May 2001
For energy-related projects, agencies will expedite their review of permits or take other actions as necessary to accelerate the completion of such projects, while maintaining safety, public health, and environmental protections. An interagency task force (Task Force)is developed to monitor and assist the agencies in their efforts to expedite their review of permits or similar actions, as necessary, to accelerate the completion of energy-related projects, increase energy production and conservation, and improve transmission of energy. The Task Force also shall monitor and assist agencies in setting up appropriate mechanisms to coordinate Federal, State, tribal, and local permitting in geographic areas where increased permitting activity is expected.
Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices
31 Jul 2004
This EO directs Federal agencies to purchase low wattage standby power devices.
Preserve America
3 March 2003
This EO states that it is the policy of the Federal Government to provide leadership in preserving America's heritage by actively advancing the protection, enhancement, and contemporary use of the historic properties owned by the Federal Government, and by promoting intergovernmental cooperation and partnerships for the preservation and use of historic properties.
Amending Executive Order 13212, Actions to Expedite Energy-Related Projects
15 May 2003
This EO amended EO 13212 by clarifying the role of the Interagency Task Force.
Federal Real Property Asset Management
4 Feb 2004
This EO establishes the Federal Real Property Council to develop guidance for, and facilitate the success of, each agency’s asset management plan. The Council is to be composed exclusively of all agency Senior Real Property Officers, the Controller of the Office of Management and Budget, the Administrator of General Services, and any other full-time or permanent part-time Federal officials or employees as deemed necessary by the Chairman of the Council. The Senior Real Property Officer is designated by the head a department of agency. The Senior Real Property Officer is required to develop and implement an agency asset management planning process that meets the form, content, and other requirements established by the Federal Real Property Council. In relation to cultural resources, the Senior Property Officer shall incorporate planning and management requirements for historic property under Executive Order 132
Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation
26 Aug 2004
This EO requires that the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Defense and the Administrator of the EPA shall:
1. carry out the programs, projects, and activities of the agency that they respectively head that implement laws relating to the environment and natural resources in a manner that:
  1. facilitates cooperative conservation;
  2. takes appropriate account of and respects the interests of persons with ownership or other legally recognized interests in land and other natural resources;
  3. properly accommodates local participation in Federal decisionmaking; and
  4. provides that the programs, projects, and activities are consistent with protecting public health and safety;
2. report annually to the Chairman of the CEQ on actions taken to implement this order; and
3. provide funding to the Office of the Environmental Quality Mgmt Fund for a Conference.
Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation
26 August 2004
This EO requires that the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Defense and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations and in coordination with each other as appropriate ...
Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management
24 January 2007; Revoked by: EO 13693, 19 March 2015
This EO directed Federal agencies to conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities under the law in support of their respective missions in an environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continuously improving, efficient, and sustainable manner.
Amendments to Executive Order 12962
September 26, 2008
This Executive Order expands the scope of Executive Order 12962
Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance
5 October 2009; Revoked by: EO 13693, 19 March 2015
This EO directed Federal agencies to increase energy efficiency; measure, report, and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from direct and indirect activities; conserve and protect water resources through efficiency, reuse, and stormwater management; eliminate waste, recycle, and prevent pollution; leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies and environmentally preferable materials, products, and services; design, construct, maintain, and operate high performance sustainable buildings in sustainable locations; strengthen the vitality and livability of the communities in which Federal facilities are located; and inform Federal employees about and involve them in the achievement of these goals.
Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change
1 November 2013; Revoked by: EO 13783, 28 March 2017
This EO directs Federal agencies to promote: (1) engaged and strong partnerships and information sharing at all levels of government; (2) risk-informed decisionmaking and the tools to facilitate it; (3) adaptive learning, in which experiences serve as opportunities to inform and adjust future actions; and (4) preparedness planning.
Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard and a Process for Further Soliciting and Considering Stakeholder Input
30 January 2015; Revoked by EO 13807, 15 August 2017
This EO, dated 30 January 2015, incorporates the Federal Flood Risk Management Standard to ensure that agencies expand management from the current base flood level to a higher vertical elevation and corresponding horizontal floodplain to address current and future flood risk and ensure that projects funded with taxpayer dollars last as long as intended. This EO also amends EO 11988.
Safeguarding the Nation from the Impacts of Invasive Species
8 December 2016
This EO amends EO 13112 and directs Federal Agency actions to continue coordinated Federal prevention and control efforts related to invasive species.
Restoring the Rule of Law, Federalism, and Economic Growth by Reviewing the "Waters of the United States" Rule
28 February 2017; Revoked by: EO 13990 20 January 2021
This EO directs the EPA and USACE to review the final rule entitled "Clean Water Rule: Definition of 'Waters of the United States,'" 80 Fed. Reg. 37054 (June 29, 2015), and publish for notice and comment a proposed rule rescinding or revising the rule, as appropriate and consistent with law.
Climate Crisis; Efforts to Protect Public Health and Environment and Restore Science
January 20, 2021
This Executive Order directs all executive departments and agencies to immediately review and, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, take action to address the promulgation of Federal regulations and other actions during the last 4 years that conflict with these important national objectives, and to immediately commence work to confront the climate crisis. In addition, this EO revokes several EOs including: • EO 13834, except for Section 6. Duties of the Federal Chief Sustainability Officer, Section 7. Duties of Heads of Agencies, and Section 11. General Provisions. • Executive Order 13778 Restoring the Rule of Law, Federalism, and Economic Growth by Reviewing the "Waters of the United States" Rule • Executive Order 13783 Promoting Energy Independence and Economic Growth • Executive Order 13807 Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure Projects
Tackling the Climate Crisis at Home and Abroad
January 27, 2021
The EO has three overarching objectives 1) promote safe global temperature, 2) increase climate resilience, and 3) support financial a pathway toward low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. The EO reinstates the Presidential Memorandum of September 21, 2016 (Climate Change and National Security), establishes the Climate Policy Office within the Executive Office of the President and establishes a National Climate Task Force. In addition, the EO aims to use Federal procurement to support robust climate action including a carbon pollution-free electricity sector, no later than 2035 and clean and zero-emission vehicles for Federal, State, local, and Tribal government fleets.
COVID Safety Protocols for Federal Contractors; Improvement Efforts
September 9 2021
This EO promotes economy and efficiency in Federal procurement by ensuring that the parties that contract with the Federal Government provide adequate COVID-19 safeguards to their workers performing on or in connection with a Federal Government contract or contract-like instrument. These safeguards will decrease the spread of COVID-19, which will decrease worker absence, reduce labor costs, and improve the efficiency of contractors and subcontractors at sites where they are performing work for the Federal Government.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination; Requirement for Federal Employees (Final)
September 9 2021
It is the policy of the Administration to halt the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, by relying on the best available data and science-based public health measures. Each agency shall implement, to the extent consistent with applicable law, a program to require COVID-19 vaccination for all of its Federal employees, with exceptions only as required by law.
Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability
December 8, 2021
President Biden has signed an Executive Order that demonstrates how the United States will leverage its scale and procurement power to lead by example in tackling the climate crisis. The executive order will reduce emissions across federal operations, invest in American clean energy industries and manufacturing, and create clean, healthy, and resilient communities.
Strengthening the Nation's Forests, Communities, and Local Economies
April 27, 2022
This EO directs federal agencies to pursue science-based, sustainable forest and land management; conserve America's mature and old-growth forests on Federal lands; invest in forest health and restoration; support indigenous traditional ecological knowledge and cultural and subsistence practices; honor Tribal treaty rights; and deploy climate-smart forestry practices and other nature-based solutions to improve the resilience of our lands, waters, wildlife, and communities in the face of increasing disturbances and chronic stress arising from climate impacts.
Implementation of the Energy and Infrastructure Provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022
September 12, 2022
This EO lists the administration's eight goals to guide implementation of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) and authorizes the new White House Office on Clean Energy Innovation and Implementation to coordinate that process.
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Last Updated: May 15, 2015