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Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris Landfills


General Description

Construction and Demolition (C&D) debris consists of the waste generated during construction, renovation, and demolition projects. Covering a wide array of materials, this waste often contains bulky, heavy materials, including concrete, wood, asphalt (from roads and roofing shingles), gypsum (the main component of drywall), metals, bricks, and plastics. C&D debris also includes salvaged building components such as doors, windows, and plumbing fixtures.

Summary of Federal Requirements

Although federally defined, there are no Federal regulations unique to C&D landfills.

  • Construction and Demolition (C&D) Landfill - a solid waste disposal facility subject to the requirements in 40 CFR 257, subparts A or B that receives construction and demolition waste and does not receive hazardous waste (defined in 40 CFR 261.3) or industrial solid waste (defined in 40 CFR 258.2). Only a C&D landfill that meets the requirements of 40 CFR 257, subpart B may receive conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste (defined in 40 CFR 261.5 of this chapter). A C&D landfill typically receives any one or more of the following types of solid wastes: roadwork material, excavated material, demolition waste, construction/renovation waste, and site clearance waste (40 CFR 258.2).

  • Construction and Demolition Wastes - the waste building materials, packaging, and rubble resulting from the construction, renovation, repair, and demolition operation on pavements, houses, commercial buildings, and other structures (40 CFR 243.101).

    Summary of State Requirements

    This classification of landfill is uniquely a state-regulated issue. More and more the push is to reduce the amount of C&D waste by optimally recycling the construction debris.

    Laws and Statutes

    Clean Air Act

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    Regulatory Sources
    State C&D Debris Guidance
    State-by-State information on C&D debris.
    Last Updated: December 21, 2010