The EMS Program Area includes the latest guidance, examples, and resources for the development and implementation of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency.
In EO 13423, section 3(b) mandates that the heads of each agency implement
within the agency environmental management systems (EMS) at all appropriate
organizational levels to ensure:
- use of EMS as the primary management approach for addressing environmental aspects of internal agency operations and activities, including environmental aspects of energy and transportation functions,
- establishment of agency objectives and targets to ensure implementation of this order, and
- collection, analysis, and reporting of information to measure performance in the implementation of EO 13423.
EO 13423 further supports the use of EMS by encouraging the heads of agencies
to establish within the agency programs for the following ISO 14001
- environmental management training,
- environmental compliance review and audit, and
- leadership awards to recognize outstanding environmental, energy, or transportation management performance in the agency.
The EO is further supplemented by implementing instructions in which Section II provides details on how EMSs are to be
developed and what a declaration of conformance involves. To clear up any potential confusion, the Clarification of Conformance Requirements in Instructions to Executive Order 13423 was issued 15 January 2008.
EO 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, dated 5 October 2009 reaffirmed a commitment to EMS by requiring agencies to sustain environmental management by (EO 13524, Section 2(j));
- continuing implementation of formal environmental management systems at all appropriate organizational levels; and
- ensuring these formal systems are appropriately implemented and maintained to achieve the performance necessary to meet the goals of EO 13514.
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Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management
24 January 2007
Executive Order 13423 "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management", signed by President Bush on January 24, 2007. The order sets goals in the areas of energy efficiency, acquisition, renewable energy, toxics reductions, recycling, renewable energy, sustainable buildings, electronics stewardship, fleets, and water conservation. In addition the order requires more widespread use of Environmental Management Systems as the framework in which to manage and continually improve these sustainable practices.
Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance
5 October 2009
This EO sets sustainability goals for Federal agencies and focuses on making improvements in their environmental, energy and economic performance. The Executive Order requires Federal agencies to set a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions reduction target within 90 days; increase energy efficiency; reduce fleet petroleum consumption; conserve water; reduce waste; support sustainable communities; and leverage Federal purchasing power to promote environmentally-responsible products and technologies.
This document, issued by OFEE, clarifies what is required in order to declare conformance with the EMS requirements of EO 13423.
This document, dated October 2004 describes what requirements must be followed if a facility/organization does not have an EMS.
This document, issued by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE) in October of 2008, provides an explanation of approaches for the development and implementation of an EMS at a variety of level across the Federal community.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers EMS policy issued 19 May 2003.
Issued by the Office of the Secretary, this is the USDA's EMS policy dated 29 June 2004.
On this site you can find DOC EMS policies, memoranda, procedures, forms, etc...
This site also serves as a means of communicating and promoting EMS programs and initiatives within the DOC.
This DOD Instruction 4715.17, issued 15 April 2009, establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures for achieving conformance with Environmental Management Systems (EMS).
Issued on Earth Day 2003, this is DOE's EMS policy.
This DHS memorandum, issued October 18, 2008, along with the DHS Directive for Sustainable Practices (issued in September) provides the backbone for the DHS EMS and other Executive Order 13423 sustainable programs (Green Purchasing, Electronic Stewardship, Sustainable Buildings, etc).
Issued by the Secretary of Interior, 26 August 2003, this is DOI's EMS policy.
This Department of Interior Environmental Compliance Memorandum No. ECM08-2, dated December 18, 2008, entitled "Interpretive Guidance on the Department's Environmental Management Systems Policy (515 DM 4)", provides guidance and information to departmental bureaus and office on EMS implementation.
This document contains a memorandum dated 5 September 2008 mandating that in order to "improve our overall environmental compliance and performance .......departmental bureaus and office implement EMS at appropriate organizational levels." The Departmental Manual 515 DM 4 provides guidance on implementing EMS as a means to promote environmental compliance and sound environmental stewardship.
This Department Manual release, 515 DM 4, issued August 13, 2008, updates Departmental policy, responsibilities, and functions on environmental management systems to be conducted on Departmental lands, facilities, operations, and services.
This document, dated 3 February 2009, establishes the environmental policy goals of the DOJ by affirming a commitment to environmental stewardship principles and the development of an EMS.
U.S. Air Force EMS policy issued by Secretary of the Air Force, 5 January 2001.
Issued 12 October 2010, this memorandum updates the EMS and EPAS requirements set forth in AR 200-1.
Issued by the Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, this EMS policy is dated 3 March 2004.
Issued by the U.S. Chief of Naval Operations, this EMS Policy is dated 6 December.
This Directive, dated 1 July 2008, applies to all Bureaus, the Departmental Offices (DO), the Office of the Inspector General (IG), and the Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA). Bureaus located in space provided through the General Services Administration (GSA) will partner with GSA to ensure Treasury compliance with applicable environmental requirements.
EPA memo by EPA Administrator Christine Todd Whitman, May 17, 2002.
U.S. Forest Service Manual (FSM) 1300 Management, Chapters 1330 and 1331 are updated as of 3 March 2006. This document details the application of ISO 14001 in the Forest Service, including EMS documentation, self declaration protocols, disclosure, and independent second-party audits.
This document, dated 27 June 2008, establishes the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) policy for compliance with environmental regulations, Executive Orders, EMS conformance, and for the management of the IRS Environmental Program.
NASA Procedural Requirement 855.3.1A describes NASA's Environmental Management System (EMS).
Issued on 22 July 2004, this is NIST's EMS policy.
This guidance, issued by the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) will increase the use of EMSs in civil settlements and explains how they will be used to address the root causes of violations and the risks they pose to communities and ecosystems. In addition, EPA is working with the U.S. Department of Justice to seek EMSs in appropriate criminal plea agreements to achieve beneficial outcomes for the environment. EPA also has issued a memorandum, Expanding the Use of Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs), to encourage and expand their use in enforcement settlements and in community involvement. The EMS guidance is an extension of EPA’s May 2002 Position Statement on EMSs, in which the agency committed to promote EMS use and emphasize the adoption of EMSs to achieve improved environmental performance and compliance and pollution prevention through source reduction.
USEPA's position statement on the use of EMSs to address an organization's environmental responsibilities -- signed by EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson, December 13, 2005.
This updated statement replaces the 2002 Position Statement on EMS signed by Administrator Whitman and reflects EPA's experiences to date with the promotion of voluntary EMSs as well as our continued commitment to be a leader in this area. The Position Statement explains EPA's policy on EMSs and the Agency's intent to continue to promote the voluntary wide-spread use of EMSs across a range of organizations and settings. EPA encourages organizations to implement EMSs that result in improved environmental performance and compliance, cost-savings, pollution prevention through source reduction, and continual improvement. (Federal Register: February 2, 2006 [Notices], Page 5664-5665).
This memorandum, dated 28 December 2005, transmits recommended practices for providing EMS-related compliance assistance to Federal Facilities. The memorandum was issued to Regional Federal Facilities Senior Managers, Regional Enforcement Division Directors, Regional Media Division Directors, and Regional Enforcement Coordinators.
ISO/IEC 17021:2006 has been issued and it contains principles and requirements for the competence, consistency and impartiality of the audit and certification of management systems of all types (e.g. quality management systems or environmental management systems) and for bodies providing these activities. Certification bodies operating to this International Standard need not offer all types of management system certification.
This memorandum, jointly issued by OMB and CEQ, encourages all agencies to adopt and implement EMS, including the establishment of a firm date for final completion of the efforts. Additionally, agencies are encouraged to work with the January 2006 scorecard initiative launched by OMB. The January 11, 2006 scorecards address Environmental Stewardship
, Transportation Management
, and Energy Management
This document outlines the recommended practices concerning EMS for EPA staff during federal facility inspections. In particular, EPA staff are encouraged to provide previously-prepared EMS information as a part of compliance assistance and facility education.
Answers to common questions about ISO 14000.
Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the 14000 series is primarily concerned with environmental management. The ISO standards must be purchased and so are not replicated here. The family of ISO 14000 standards includes:
- ISO 14001, Environmental management systems -- Requirements with guidance for use, 2004
- ISO 14004, Environmental management systems -- General guidelines on principles, systems and support techniques, 2004
- ISO 14015, Environmental management -- Environmental assessment of sites and organizations (EASO), 2001
- ISO 14031, Environmental management -- Environmental performance evaluation – Guidelines, 1999
- ISO 14032, Environmental management -- Examples of environmental performance evaluation (EPE), 1999
Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), this document is primarily concerned with the management of audit programs. The ISO standards must be purchased and so are not replicated here.
On 23 November 2009, Michelle Moore, Federal Environmental Executive, sent an email to Agency Senior Sustainability Officers providing information on the annual EMS data call due 15 January 2010. Accompanying the data call are documents for accomplishing the 2009 report (see FY09 EMS Annual Report Data Call); an agency-level EMS report template (Attachment A); a facility/organization-level data template (Attachment B); the FY09 EMS metrics (Attachment C); and supplemental Oct 2008 guidance on establishing EMSs at All Appropriate Levels (Attachment D).
The Office of the Federal Environmental Executive has released implementation guidance for use in preparing and deploying a Hierarchical, Organization-focused Environment Safety and Health Management System (ESHMS). The guidance includes sample templates while outlining key steps for agencies to follow to implement a hierarchical, organizational-level, enterprise ESHMS, from headquarters down to facilities. The templates may also be used for the development of a system that addresses environment only (i.e. EMS) or for a system that is implemented at only one level of the organization.
Details the status and progress for each agency in the areas of energy, transportation, and environment.
Details the status and progress for each agency in the areas of energy, transportation, and environment.
This guide provides practitioners with a tool to improve NEPA implementation and achieve the environmental sustainability goals laid out in NEPA and Executive Order 13423. The guide provides examples of how NEPA and EMS together can help federal agencies more effectively manage their environmental responsibilities. For example, identifying environmental aspects in the development of an EMS can build on aspects identified in previous NEPA analyses. Conversely, a new NEPA analysis can consider the identified environmental aspects in an EMS when assessing potential environmental impacts of a proposed future action.
This crosswalk, dated 2 December 2009 was developed by DOE's Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The crosswalk aligns goals and targets from E.O. 13514, E.O. 13423, and statutes, in order to assist federal managers in identifying current requirements.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (E-Pact) established new statutory requirements specifically designed to improve the environmental management of federal facility underground storage tanks (USTs). Executive Order 13423 Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, requires that federal agencies implement environmental management systems (EMS) at all appropriate organizational levels. This EPA document provides guidance and examples of how efforts to address Underground Storage Tank regulatory requirements and implement best management practices for UST operations can work in concert with Environmental Management System implementation.
This document provides background information about the connection between EMSs and the FEC program. One primary purpose of an EMS is to coordinate environmental management activities into one integrated framework that enhances and improves the overall efficiency and effectiveness of these existing, but separate, environmental programs. The FEC is an environmental management program that can exist within the structure of your EMS to improve your facility’s environmental performance.
(EPA 742-R-05-001) The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements and/or buying products and services in a Federal facility.
This tool was developed to address the elements of ISO 14001 EMS Standard in the context of electronic equipment management across the lifecycle of the equipment. The tool provides resources for locating information and FEC program tools to help establish and implement your EMS, specifically the portions that concern electronic equipment management. The tool also provides equivalent activities that can “populate” your EMS and at the same time meet FEC program requirements for recognition.
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While ISO does not itself issue certificates or accreditation, the need has been felt for ISO to play a role in the dissemination of information on the national programmes in operation in various countries. This directory is intended to contribute to meeting that demand.
The Center helps Americans consume responsibly to protect the environment, enhance quality of life, and promote social justice. It is a coalition of educational organizations, environmental organizations, citizen groups, the National Resources Defense Council, Consumer Federation of America, the Public Utility Law Project, and the Environmental Protection Agency. It addresses issues such as institutional purchasing, development of more sustainable products, living sustainably, and buying wisely.
Sustainability is the ability to achieve economic prosperity while protecting the natural systems of the planet, and providing a higher quality of life for its people. Individuals, communities and institutions are developing and implementing sustainability practices with the help of dozens of EPA programs, partnerships and policy tools. This site provides links to many EPA programs and tools that contribute to sustainability. These are organized into three main areas: planning and practices; scientific tools and technology; measuring progress.
A non-profit, non-partisan, world federation of national associations for environmental management and sustainable development. Their site contains articles, case studies, and tools on environmental management, as well as links to other EMS sites.
ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 148 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. The ISO 14000 family of standards are the basis of environmental management systems throughout the world.
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Sponsored by the U.S. DOE Sustainability Performance Office (SPO), the DOE Sustainability Awards recognize outstanding sustainability contributions of individuals and teams at DOE sites. The award categories are: Change Agents; Community Collaboration; Comprehensive Energy Management; Comprehensive Fleet Management; Cradle to Cradle; Environmental Management Systems; Exceptional Service/Sustainability Champion; Greenhouse Gas Management; Health and Environment; Integrative Planning and Design; Living Laboratory; Sustainable Acquisition; and Water Resources.
This award is given to recognize efforts to ensure mission accomplishment and protection of human health through implementation of environmental management systems, pollution prevention, and environmental compliance that promotes sustainability in the areas of environmental planning, waste management, and land, air and water resource protection. These are annual awards celebrating the previous years' accomplishments/innovations. Nominations are typically accepted until March and the awards given in June.
Contains proposed language for inclusion in Statements of Work for new on-site contracts.
Contains proposed language for inclusion in Statements of Work for current/existing on-site contracts.
U.S. Department of Defense's environmental management system's home page. Contains DoD-wide and Service-specific EMS policy and guidance, tools and training material, POCs, presentations, pilot studies and other useful information.
This guide is designed to explain environmental management system (EMS) concepts and to support and facilitate the development of EMS among small and medium-sized organizations.
The Executive Summary of a 2 volume in-depth study funded by the EPA Office of Water and Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation at EPA. This study, was designed to determine if EMSs do in fact improve environmental performance. Baseline information, information on EMS design, and information on changes in performance were collected from each facility over several years. This study was also supported by a number of states, through the Multi-State Working Group on Environmental Management Systems. State managers played a critical role in ensuring data quality and worked closely with a number of facilities involved in the research.
Volumes 1 and 2 of an in-depth study funded by the EPA Office of Water and Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation at EPA. This study, was designed to determine if EMSs do in fact improve environmental performance. Baseline information, information on EMS design, and information on changes in performance were collected from each facility over several years. This study was also supported by a number of states, through the Multi-State Working Group on Environmental Management Systems. State managers played a critical role in ensuring data quality and worked closely with a number of facilities involved in the research.
An article by Edward A. Boling, Deputy General Counsel for the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), reprinted with permission from ELR News & Analysis, Environmental Law Institute, Washington, D.C., focusing on the interplay of NEPA and EMS at federal facilities.
This guide is designed to help Federal managers who are considering adopting an environmental management system (EMS).
A quick overview of the EMS process and EPA resources.
This is derived from a list of facilities, activities, tasks, aspects and impacts developed for the Department of the Army. The Army-specific facilities have been deleted (i.e. bombing ranges) and the language modified to reflect more common-use terms (i.e. “vehicle maintenance” instead of “Auto Hobby Shop”). This is not a comprehensive list, instead, it is a starting point. The Facility Types in this list include, but are not limited to: Automotive Service Station; Cafeteria; Car Wash; Dental Clinic; Domestic Wastewater Treatment Facility; Fossil-Fuel Electric Generating Plant; Fuel Dispensing; Hazardous Waste Storage Area; Historic Sites; Housing; Individual Sewage Systems; Medical Centers and Hospitals; Oil/Water Separators and Grit Traps; Pesticide Storage Area; Remediation Site; Tank Truck Load/Unload Facility; Underground Storage Tank System (UST); Universal waste storage area, Vehicle Maintenance; and Wetlands.
Information for anyone that reviews and approves agency environmental budgets.
This EMS guide, developed in 2004 by the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, was prepared for the manager(s) of any Federal site, facility, installation, office or organization where those individuals have authority to allocate resources and direct activities.
This toolkit will enable utility managers looking to make an informed decision about "why" to implement an EMS based upon the best available information and experiences from other utilities that have successfully implemented. Additionally, the toolkit provides guidance for utility managers and staff that have decided to implement an EMS and are looking for state-of-the-art guidance and advice on "how" to implement.
This guide is designed to explain environmental management system (EMS) concepts and to support and facilitate the development of EMS among small and medium-sized organizations.
Identifies what EPA program Offices map to which environmental aspects.
The Implementing Instructions for Executive Order 13423 require agencies to commit to proactive communications with interested parties, ideally as part of their environmental management systems (EMSs). From 2003 to 2005, the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive led a team, consisting of Federal and state agencies, that created a cross-walk identifying available guidance documents regarding environmental communications. The intent of these documents is to assist organizations in developing proactive communications procedures and processes using the EMS Plan, Do, Check, Act model.
Help for determining where effort needs to be exerted to develop a robust EMS.
EPA's EMS basics website, including why develop an EMS, how to develop and EMS, costs and benefits, etc.
This October 2007 document provides practical guidance, potential language, and examples of environmentally beneficial landscaping practices for each of the EMS elements. The intended audience includes Federal facility staff tasked with developing an EMS and reducing the environmental impact of facility landscaping activities. The purpose of this guidance document is to assist with the addition of sustainable landscaping practices to an existing EMS or to the incorporation of sustainable landscaping into the development of an EMS.
Sample EMS costs tracking matrix.
Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE) flowchart on how to evaluate environmental aspects.
Example position description for senior environmental protection specialist/analyst in the area of environmental management.
A series of suggested questions that are to be a guide when interviewing potential registrars in preparation for ISO 14001 certification.
Dated December 2005, the scope of the DOE HQ Facilities EMS encompasses two major facilities – the James Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, Southwest, Washington, D.C., and the Germantown Main Building, 19901 Germantown Road, Germantown, Maryland. This document details how the EMS process has been implemented at these facilities.
The details of developing and implementing an EMS for the EPA Region 3 Philadelphia Office. Includes a summary of the EMS, a factsheet, and training.
Developed by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) and dated February 2005.
This document is designed to help range operators, regulators, and others develop a consistent approach to the evaluation and deployment of appropriate practices and technologies at applicable sites.
The EPA's Environmental Science Center (ESC) is located at Ft. Meade MD. This site provides access to their EMS manual, their Employee Fact Sheet, their accomplishments, and their budget.
The Green Environmental Management Systems (GEMS) Program represents a systematic approach to environmental management, providing a framework to weave existing environmental programs into VHA's Environment of Care management processes, which enables the organization to achieve continual improvement in performance. Within the Environment of Care Program, the GEMS Guidebook will provide for environmental regulatory compliance and conformance with VHA policy and Executive Order 13148. This is a link to the MS Word-based version dated March 2004 with updates through April 2005.
The Green Environmental Management Systems (GEMS) Program represents a systematic approach to environmental management, providing a framework to weave existing environmental programs into VHA's Environment of Care management processes, which enables the organization to achieve continual improvement in performance. Within the Environment of Care Program, the GEMS Guidebook will provide for environmental regulatory compliance and conformance with VHA policy and Executive Order 13148. This is a link to the Web-based version dated March 2004 with updates as of April 2005.
The Chesapeake Bay Program is a partnership that includes State and Federal agencies, advocacy groups, and interested persons. EPA Region 3 has spearheaded the application of EMS principles as part of managing the Chesapeake Bay. This is the version 3 release.
Powerpoint presentation detailing NASA's EMS program.
Issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), dated November 2009, this tool provides assistance for developing site environmental management systems (EMSs) to 1) implement sustainable practices for enhancing environmental, energy, and transportation performance, and 2) include the environmental, energy, and transportation objectives and measurable targets that contribute to achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) sustainable environmental, energy, and transportation goals. This Tool was developed to complement sustainable practices training for DOE sites. The immediate user of this tool is likely to be the EMS coordinator at a facility.
The TVA’s EMS provides:
- A set of processes based on best practices to help TVA meet the commitments expressed in its Environmental Policy and Principles
- A way to standardize environmental practices
- A means for continuous improvement, and
- A tool for reducing environmental risk.
Final scorecard metrics developed by the EO 13148 Work Group. Each agency will be requested to provide a summary of this information for its EMS appropriate facilities.
This list is based on the FY 05 data call under EO 13148.
This is a list of questions that address the status of EMS implementation.
Article from the current (March 2005) edition of the Air & Waste Management Association's EM magazine for environmental managers discussing EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD)'s efforts to implement their EMS.
These metrics are provided to allow agencies, organization and facilities that are implementing an Environmental Management System to plan for reporting fiscal year 2009 progress, performance and successes. Each agency will be requested to provide a summary of this information. These metrics will be used until 2011 and may be amended by the E.O. Interagency Environmental Leadership Workgroup or the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive to reflect new information.
This version dated 2009-10-15 reflects the removal of the Performance Track recognition question due to termination of that program.
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Senior management briefing developed by OFEE.
Presentation on the OFEE Clarification of Conformance Requirements, general EMS auditing practices, the requirements of EO 13423, and general auditing processes and tools. Presentation given at the Federal Environmental Symposium – East, June 2008 by Will Garvey, EPA.
The DHHS version of the Army’s EMS Manager’s Guide.
Dept. of Interior's EMS awareness training presentation, dated August 2007.
Introduction to EMS auditing concepts.
A MS Powerpoint presentation that was given to senior officials at the Department of Justice headquarters building in July, 2004.
These presentations provide guidance and tools for facility Program Managers to use and modify to meet their facility training and educational needs. They can be used for general awareness training for upper management, or for detailed EMS implementation guidance for individuals and line managers implementing EMS improvements.
This course provides an overview of environmental management systems (EMS) and how EMS can support environmental improvements at facilities that are subject to environmental regulations. It also presents information regarding the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) involvement in supporting EMS efforts at facilities regulated under a number of environmental statutes, including the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This training course will take about 1 hour to complete.
This course focuses on the Internal Audit process and trains Navy civilian and military personnel representing shore installations and regional commands to effectively prepare for and conduct Internal Integrated Environmental Management Systems (EMS) / Compliance audits at Navy shore installations as required by OPNAVINST 5090.1 (series) and in accordance with NAVFAC & CNIC policies and procedures. The course is designed to guide students, individually and as a part of team, through the process of developing, implementing and executing an Internal Assessment Plan (IAP) at their installations. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing a systematic approach in managing and executing their internal EMS audits. Students will also learn to identify strengths, weaknesses and interactions of environmental management systems and associated media programs; identify underlying causal factors that may contribute to the occurrence of observed compliance deficiencies; evaluate each of the individual components of an EMS; provide feedback on the effectiveness of the overall system and identify opportunities for improvement.
A presentation with information on connecting the FEC to your EMS.
This presentation, given at the Federal Facilities Council meeting, discusses how the scorecards work and the status of the program.
Generic version of the Army’s EMS Manager’s Guide.
One page management brief.
Report of the EMS Metrics Subgroup -- "EMS Metrics: A Peek at 2009 and Beyond" presentation at the 2008 Federal Environmental Symposium East.
This is a copy of a briefing given to the EO 13148 Workgroup. Its focus is to describe connections between the FEC and EMSs and introduce the workgroup to the FEC EMS Module.
Briefing presented by Ed Pinero at the Executive Meeting on Designing Your EMS sponsored by EPA regions 4 and 6 on 25 February 2003.
The intended audience for this guide is Top managers, that is: managers of any site, office, site, or other organization who have authority to allocate resources and direct activities. This guide many also be valuable for any individual with responsibility for directing activities and allocating resources at their organization, or with other responsibility for employees or operations.
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