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Regulations, Guidance, and Policy
The rule referred to as the "All Appropraite Inquiries" rule established specific regulatory requirements for conducting all appropriate inquiries into the previous ownership, uses, and environmental conditions of a property for the purposes of qualifying for certain landowner liability protections under CERCLA. The final rule went into effect on November 1, 2006.
Includes guidance on using ADR in enforcement actions.
This site provides access to guidance documents designed to assist EPA and State personnel in attaining compliance with ARAR requirements. ARARs are identified on a site-by-site basis for all on-site response actions where CERCLA authority is the basis for cleanup.
This MOU established responsibilities and funding for the US Environmental Protection Agency's assistance and support in accelerating environmental restoration and cleanup decisions in support of reuse at selected Department of Defense (DoD) BRAC Rounds I-IV installations.
This memorandum, dated 28 November 2005, encourages federal departmental and agency leadership to develop strategies to prevent or reduce environmental conflicts and generate opportunities for constructive collaboration problem solving. The Memorandum directs all Federal departments and agencies to document their ECR planning and implementation efforts in an annual report submitted to OMB and CEQ. Documentation includes an agency self-audit to analyze how ECR may be applied to environmental disputes when they occur, and to plan for increasing institutional capacity for ECR where appropriate.
Policy and guidance documents to implement EPA's responsibilities in overseeing Superfund cleanups at Federal facilities.
This Act provides a Federal "Superfund" to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous-waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment. Through the Act, EPA was given power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their cooperation in the cleanup.
This policy memorandum, dated 1 August 2011, describes management controls that will be implemented to ensure that the recommendations in the Five-Year Review reports are tracked, monitored and implemented; provides guidance to Remedial Project Managers to ensure that the reviews are completed on time; outlines how EPA makes an independent decision on protectiveness; and confirms that Five-Year Reviews are generally enforceable under Federal Facility Agreements.
This document, dated 21 July 2005 is intended to assist EPA Regions and other federal agencies improve the quality of Site Investigations (SIs) at federal facilities. The goal is to obtain sufficient information under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to meet the requirements outlined in the National Contingency Plan (NCP).
In this document, dated 1 December 2008, the Department of Justice, said that the Pentagon had no legal grounds to resist cleanup orders from the EPA.
This memorandum, dated 17 March 2006 and assigned the number OSWER Directive 9208.2, EPA enforcement and superfund program officials have directed regional offices to apply the agency's "enforcement first" policy to ensure that institutional controls are implemented effectively at superfund sites. The memo clarifies a 2002 directive asking regions to redouble their attention to the agency's "enforcement first" policy that potentially responsible parties should conduct remedial actions whenever possible.
This policy was updated in February 2008 and reflects the Association stand that federal facilities must comply with and be held to these same standards as private-sector facilities. The policy further states that there can be no justification for any lower standard of protection of public health and the environment from federal facilities than from any other facility. This policy addresses federal facilities, with particular focus on sites owned and/or operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD).
Dated October 12, 2005, the PCC Strategy is a management framework of goals, with recommended approaches and initiatives, that is designed to provide greater assurance that remedies put in place under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remain protective over the long-term.
In this database, users can browse and search frequently asked questions about EPCRA, RMP, and Oil Pollution Prevention (which includes oil discharge regulations, SPCC, and FRP). In addition, users can submit their own question if they do not find a similar one in the Database.
Issued by EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), the purpose of this document is to provide guidance to support Five-Year Reviews (FYRs) under CERCLA, as amended, where institutional controls (ICs) are included as components of site remedies. FYRs generally are conducted where the chosen remedy leaves waste in place and does not allow for unlimited use and unrestricted exposure(UU/UE) at a site. This guidance supplements OSWER's 2001 Comprehensive Five-Year Review Guidance (FYR Guidance) and provides recommendations for conducting FYRs for the IC component of remedies in a manner similar to the review of engineering or other remedy components.
On January 26, 2006, EPA issued new protective guidance for cleaning up perchlorate contamination recommending a preliminary clean-up goal for perchlorate of 24.5 parts per billion in water. EPA's guidance is derived from the agency's reference dose for perchlorate which is based on the 2005 recommendations and conclusions of the nation's foremost science advisory committee (National Academy of Sciences). This assessment guidance for perchlorate offers clear guidance to site managers to help ensure national consistency in evaluating perchlorate in light of widely varying state guidance. This decision was based on the best available science and will be updated as new information becomes available.
Guidance on the use of RCRA 7003 and other corrective action documents.
This EPA memorandum, dated 5 December 2012, discusses the potential applicability of the bona fide prospective purchaser (BFPP) provision to tenants who lease contaminated or formerly contaminated properties and how the Agency intends to exercise its enforcement discretion to treat certain tenants as BFPPs under CERCLA.
The focus of this act is to provide relief for small businesses from liability under CERCLA of 1980, and to amend CERCLA to promote the cleanup and reuse of brownfields, to provide financial assistance for brownfields revitalization, to enhance State response programs, and for other purposes.
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 reauthorized CERCLA to continue cleanup activities around the country.
The source for EPA model documents and guidance on liability, negotiations, and settlement procedures under CERCLA (Superfund).
Agreement between the Defense Department and state regulators on requirements governing funding state regulatory oversight of military cleanups. Under the DSMOA program, DOD reimburses state regulatory agencies for regulatory oversight of environmental restoration at military sites. Once a state has signed a DSMOA with DOD, it can apply for a cooperative agreement that "outlines the planning and funding structure for the environmental restoration efforts the state will carry out at DoD facilities over the next two years in order to mitigate impacts to human health and the environment," DOD says in its FY05 annual report to Congress on its environmental programs.
Supporting Information and Tools
 
Databases/Software Tools
A tool for screening potentially applicable technologies for a remediation project. The matrix allows the user to screen 64 in situ and ex situ technologies for either soil or groundwater remediation. Variables used in screening include contaminants, development status, overall cost, and cleanup time. In-depth information on each technology is also available, including direct links to the database of cost and performance reports written by FRTR members.
This database documents the status and achievements, as of March 2003, of 1,811 technology applications identified for Superfund remedial action sites, including 1,760 treatment applications for soil, other solid wastes, and groundwater and 51 applications of groundwater containment using vertical engineered barriers (VEB).
This EPA website is an adjunct to the EPA publication and provides a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources.
This is a free program where users can find out about the reactivity of substances or mixtures of substances. It includes: a database of reactivity information for more than 5,000 common hazardous chemicals; and a way for users to virtually "mix" chemicals--like the chemicals in the derailed tank cars above--to find out what dangers could arise from accidental mixing.
This system lets environmental professionals use the Internet to search, view, download, and print information about innovative remediation and characterization technologies. The system is sponsored by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI).
The goal of the Federal Facility Site Evaluation Project (FFSEP) was to determine the assessment and cleanup status of 514 federally-owned sites and to reinvigorate the assessment and evaluation process if a site was determined to be stalled. These sites were identified in conjunction with Federal Departments and Agencies with sites on the list and had not been fully assessed with regard to how to best address them under EPA's cleanup authorities. This database provides a site overview, information on the cleanup status, and the docket listing date.
Developed by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), the Matrix and its accompanying Reference Guide provide project managers and site stakeholders with information for use in identifying methods involving non-intrusive or minimally intrusive technologies in order to optimize sampling locations and minimize well installation. The Matrix includes techniques and instruments that are (1) fieldable and (2) commercially available. The Reference Guide provides a description and additional background information on each technology.
This map provides information about progress at a site, site description, who is responsible for a site, site controls, and points of contact.
Part of the CAMEO suite, MARPLOT® is a mapping application that people can use to quickly create, view, and modify maps. Users can create their own objects in MARPLOT (e.g., facilities, schools, response assets) and display them on top of a basemap. (There are three basemaps to choose from: standard map files, aerial photos, and topographical maps.) Users can also link objects they've created in MARPLOT to the CAMEO database to store additional information about the objects. For example, users might create an object for a chemical facility in MARPLOT, and then link it to the facility record in CAMEO in order to quickly get info about the facility's chemical inventory during an emergency response.
This data portal provides access to state ground water data for selected areas (including interstate areas). Not all states have made data available to the portal (This will be a focus of activity in 2013 and beyond). However, USGS and EPA ground water data are currently accessible. States will continue to manage their data. The portal is acts as an access point that puts data in a common format for ease of use. A user can download and save the data to an Excel table or another format. The portal is sponsored by the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI).
This website provides technical assistance for restoration programs to help them consider where to invest their efforts for greater likelihood of success, based on the traits of their own geographic area's environment and communities. There are three main website components. Step-by-step instructions in recovery potential screening provide watershed managers with a methodology for comparing restorability differences among their waters. The steps in the methodology link to several online tools and resources that are used in recovery potential screening. A library of recovery potential indicators offers technical information on specific recovery-related factors (ecological, stressor, and social), how they influence restorability, and how to measure them.
Site information for NPL sites (i.e., sites proposed to the NPL, currently on the final NPL or deleted from the final NPL) is displayed in a standardized site progress profile format. The profile includes information such as the current status of cleanup efforts, what cleanup milestones have been reached and how much liquid and solid-based media have been treated. Only NPL sites are displayed in the site progress profile format, non-NPL and archived sites are displayed in a less graphical format. Additionally, people can easily learn why a site has been characterized as "Human Exposure Not Under Control," and what EPA is doing to address those concerns.
SMARTe 2007 is a web-based, menu-driven, decision analysis support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains guidance and analysis tools for addressing all aspects of the revitalization process including planning, environmental, economic, and social concerns. SMARTe is intended for all revitalization stakeholders. SMARTe is being developed by EPA's Office of Brownfields Cleanup and Redevelopment and Office of Research and Development, with support from the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC).
This is a grant writing tool to be used for preparation of EPA brownfields grant proposals. Currently, TAB EZ only addresses assessment and cleanup grants. TAB EZ provides a framework for the proposal and provides strategies and links to reduce time in writing the proposal. TAB EZ is available free of cost to everyone nationwide.
Developed by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), the DST Matrix contains publicly-funded decision support software tools for environmental restoration activities from such agencies as the U.S. EPA, DoD, and DoE. This matrix displays the applicability of each tool to contaminant classes and media types, as well as software types supported for input/output, and potential team members that will maximize the use of each tool. The purpose of the matrix is not to compare the tools against one another, but rather, to provide an evaluation of the capabilities and uses of the tools to help project managers better understand how to select the tools appropriate for their specific site needs. Also included are direct links to the tool software homepages, the matrix-development report, and case studies that show how select tools can be used as part of a cleanup project.
Directories/Catalogs/Newsletters
Newsgroup operated by the Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). Addresses brownfields concerns and issues at governmental and non–governmental locations. Subscription Info
In November, 1998, CPEO and the Pacific Studies Center introduced this newsletter, which disseminates reports and viewpoints on U.S. EPA's Brownfields program and on economic and environmental issues pertaining to private sites at which future use is linked to environmental remediation.
Several times a year CPEO publishes, in conjunction with the Pacific Studies Center, this newsletter, which highlights important policy developments in Defense Department cleanup and other military environmental issues.
A quarterly electronic newsletter highlighting news, resources and policies impacting cleanup and reuse of contaminated properties.
Newsgroup operated by the Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). It addresses cleanup issues associated with military sites. Subscription Information
Includes information on the technologies being examined through the SITE Program.
A newsletter about soil, sediment, and ground-water characterization and remediation technologies.
Libraries/Repositories
The Compendium aids users in learning about the background of the cleanup program and conducting their duties. The compendium does not include all documents that are pertinent to federal facilities; rather it contains the most commonly used policy and guidance documents. The compendium is current as of April 2003. the compendium is organized in three separate volumes: Volume I: Federal Facility Cleanup Response; Volume II: Base Realignment and Closure; Volume III: Enforcement.
This system displays site information for National Priorities List (NPL) sites (i.e., sites proposed to the NPL, currently on the final NPL or deleted from the final NPL) in a standardized site progress profile format. The profile includes information such as the current status of cleanup efforts, what cleanup milestones have been reached and how much liquid and solid-based media have been treated. Additionally, the profile includes links to information found on EPA Regional Web sites.
This a web-based knowledge management information tool custom built for the D&D user community. The objective of the D&D KM-IT is to provide single-point access into the collective knowledge-base of the D&D community within and outside of DOE. Available information includes lessons learned, best practices, and other information gathered during the deactivation and decommissioning of US DOE's excess nuclear facilities.
CERCLA Section 120(c) requires EPA to establish and maintain this docket which contains information about Federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances have been or may be released. SARA, as amended by the Defense Authorization Act of 1997, specifies that, for each Federal facility that is included on the docket an evaluation shall be completed in accordance with a reasonable schedule. Such site evaluation activities help determine whether the facility should be included on the National Priorities List (NPL) and provide EPA and the public with valuable information about the facility. CERCLA requires that the docket be updated every six months, as new facilities are reported to EPA by Federal agencies.
Provides access to individual pages about sites where FFRRO is working on cleanup projects. Site pages include basic site information, maps, links to reports and related pages, and other resources specific to the site. Users can see all sites or view them according to the following categories: Federal Facility NPL Sites; BRAC Sites; DOE Sites; and other agency sites.
This site is the source for obtaining Five-Year Reviews, documents prepared by EPA to evaluate the implementation and performance of site remedies to determine if they remain protective of human health and the environment. Using Five-Year Reviews Online, you can search by state, site name or EPA ID, region, keyword or fiscal year across all available Five-Year Reviews.
The International City/County Management Association (ICMA) has collected environmental land use control documents from federal, state, and local agencies, NGOs, and industry. The e-Library tries to maintain the most current LUC documents, including statutory and regulatory sections, guidance, model LUC instruments, research papers, and reports. Documents are provided in abstract and full-text.
This system contains full-text Records of Decision (RODs), ROD Abstracts, ROD Amendments (AMDs) and Explanations of Significant Differences (ESDs). Using RODS, you can search by state, site name or EPA ID for specific ROD documents, or by keyword (such as a contaminant or remediation type) across all ROD documents. A ROD provides the justification for the remedial action (treatment) chosen at a Superfund site. It also contains site history, site description, site characteristics, community participation, enforcement activities, past and present activities, contaminated media, the contaminants present, scope and role of response action and the remedy selected for cleanup.
The Project was established to provide technical assistance to Regional Remedial Project Managers, Corrective Action Staff, and On-Scene Coordinators. The Project consists of a network of Regional Forums and specialized Technical Support Centers located in ORD and the Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) laboratories, and OSWER's Environmental Response Team. The objectives of the TSP are to network with other EPA programs and other Federal agencies.
Organizations
An organization that promotes and facilitates public participation in the oversight of environmental activities at federal facilities, private "Superfund" sites, and Brownfields. CPEO educates public stakeholders on both the process and technologies for cleanup and environmental protection.
Started by EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), CEI is designed to enhance OSWER and regional offices' engagement with local communities and stakeholders (e.g., state and local governments, tribes, academia, private industry, other federal agencies, non-profit organizations) to help them meaningfully participate in government decisions on land cleanup, emergency preparedness and response, and the management of hazardous substances and waste.
The DoD's EC program was initiated in 2006 by the by the Office of Deputy Under Secretary Defense for Installations and Environment. The program is operated by personnel within DoD's Environmental Readiness and Safety Directorate with contractor and staff support from the U.S. Army Public Health Command, Institute for Public Health. EC program staff are continuously scanning information sources to identify emerging contaminants, that is, chemicals or materials that either lack human health standards or have an evolving science and regulatory status to determine which of these chemicals and materials DoD uses, how DoD uses them and how any regulatory changes may impact DoD personnel, the environment or DoD's mission.
This EPA office helps accelerate the transfer of federal property by coordinating environmental cleanup activities and crafting innovative property transfer arrangements. As part of this mission, FFRRO assists in the transfer of both Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) and National Priorities List (NPL) sites, also known as Superfund sites.
The HSRC provide free technical assistance to communities with environmental contamination programs.
This organization promotes the use of sustainable practices during implementation of remedial action activities with the objective of balancing economic viability, conservation of natural resources and biodiversity, and the enhancement of the quality of life in surrounding communities.
The purpose of this center is to provide information about the use of innovative site investigation and cleanup technologies and strategies at brownfields and other land revitalization sites.
This DoD program aims to protect readiness, people and the environment by identifying and managing risks associated with the chemicals and materials DoD uses. The CMRM Program accomplishes this by do this by enabling more effective management of current and future risks from chemicals. In so doing, the CMRM program helps to lower lifecycle costs, drive innovation, and avoid the need for future crisis-driven retooling to comply with new regulations.
The roundtable was established in 1991 as an interagency committee to exchange information and to provide a forum for joint action regarding the development and demonstration of innovative technologies for hazardous waste remediation.
Lessons Learned
 
General
An annual summary of the progress accomplished under Superfund. Available reports start in FY 2004.
This document summarizes the requirements and process for evaluating potential liability from environmental contamination, and will introduce readers to the larger context of environmental issues associated with real property transfers. The general guidelines set out in this document for conducting an Environmental Due Diligence Audit (EDDA) are intended for use as baseline guidance when acquiring, leasing, transferring, or terminating interest in any real property.
The Citizen’s Guide series is a set of 21 fact sheets that describe, in general terms, cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. Each fact sheet is two pages long and answers five questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) Is it safe? 4) How long will it take? and 5) Why use it?
The Government Accounting Standards Board has issued a standard requiring state and local governments to provide the public with better information about the financial impact of environmental cleanups. The standard is GASB Statement No. 49, Pollution Remediation Obligations.
PBC works to reduce the risk by executing restoration cleanup projects with fixed objectives for a fixed price. The web site offers a thorough review of PBC, information on how to apply PBC, a review of the players and challenges, answers to frequently asked questions, a review of insurance, a community page, and resources from past PBC workshops.
The web site offers a thorough review of PBM, its component strategies, implementation and demonstration information, guidance, training, resources, and links.
The focus of this site is assisting the government remedial project managers (RPMs) in the evaluation process and to enhance technology transfer among Federal agencies. The site allows the RPM to pursue questions based on contamination problems as well as specific technology issues depending on their need.
EPA is working with stakeholders at Superfund sites across the country that have been cleaned up yet remain vacant due to real or perceived barriers to their reuse. At many of these sites, communities, local governments, landowners, and other site stakeholders are joining with the Agency to move forward with reuse in a manner that does not interfere with the cleanup remedy and maintains protection of human health and the environment at the site. These site-specific partnerships are key elements of "demonstration projects" for the Agency's Return to Use (RTU) Initiative.
This toolkit is used for promoting successful community participation in the Superfund process. The Toolkit contains 47 tools, each of which describes activities that Superfund Site Teams have used successfully or provides information on available resources.
This site contains information about Superfund's redevelopment programs, including case studies and success stories.
This site bundles information for particular technologies that may be used in a variety of cleanup/remediation activities. The site is aimed at providing information for site owners, the public, and other non-technical parties that might be involved in a cleanup. The site will be continuously updated with information from federal cleanup programs, state sources, universities, nonprofit organizations, peer-reviewed publications, and public-private partnerships.
EPA is undertaking an Agency-wide initiative to revitalize land by restoring and reusing contaminated, and potentially contaminated, sites. Whether a property is a Superfund site, an operating waste disposal site, a petroleum facility, a former gas station, or an abandoned industrial facility, EPA believes that environmental cleanup and land restoration across all EPA programs must be achieved.
Award Winners
The DOI Environmental Achievement Awards convey high-level recognition to DOI employees and partners for DOI projects in the following categories: Sustainability Hero; Green Innovation; Lean, Clean, and Green; Good Neighbor; Green Dream Team; Building the Future; and Environmental Remediation.
This award is given to recognize efforts to protect human health and the environment by cleaning up identified DoD sites in a timely, cost-efficient, and responsive manner. These are annual awards celebrating the previous years' accomplishments/innovations. Nominations are typically accepted until March and the awards given in June.
Each year, the Army recognizes and rewards excellence for the development, management and transferability of environmental programs that increase environmental quality, enhance the mission and help make the Army sustainable. The winners of the Secretary of the Army Environmental Awards Program go on to compete in the Secretary of Defense competition.
BRAC
Contains recommendations on the potential for BRAC sites to be NPL sites and/or which proposed BRAC sites are already NPL sites.
This site contains the most up-to-date news on the BRAC process.
The map shows sites recommended for closure, site recommended for realignment, and sites recommended for growth.
Developed by EPA’s Development, Community, and Environment Division (DCED) , EPA Region 1’s Smart Growth Program, Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO) , and the Land Revitalization Office addresses the steps, procedures, and possibilities for a successful base closure that does not devastate nearby communities.
Brownfields
This guide offers information about a range of federal resources that can provide technical and financial support to brownfields cleanup and redevelopment.
This EPA publication (EPA 542-R-12-001) provide a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources. General concepts and basic considerations that affect the cleanup of brownfields sites are described with a new "Back to Basics" approach. This publication is targeted for non-technical stakeholders and technical professionals, walking users through the big picture of managing a brownfields site from assessment to reuse and introduces technology options and considerations for each phase. Additionally there is a Brownfields Road Map website to provide direct access to technical resources.
This site aids those who are new to the concept of Brownfields definitions, case studies, and information on how Brownfields redevelopment works.
Released by National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals (NALGEP), this primer aids aid local governments in investigating whether renewable energy development may be the right choice for brownfields in their communities.
This EPA guide walks decision-makers through six questions to determine whether infiltration or other stormwater management approaches are appropriate for a specific brownfield property.
This plan, dated October 2008, describes a series of specific actions, new tools, and expanded partnership efforts EPA will launch over the next three years. In the plan, EPA identifies four strategic initiatives and activities to return abandoned petroleum brownfields sites to productive use.
State Brownfields and Voluntary Response Programs: An Update from the States This September 2008 document (EPA-560-R-08-004) explores the evolving landscape of state environmental, financial, and technical programs, including the incentives designed to promote brownfields cleanup and redevelopment. This tool looks at multiple components of state brownfields and voluntary response program(s), and provides a synopsis of each state's response program(s) and contact information
Developed at the University of Illinois, these case studies focus on projects that are recipients of funding under U.S. EPA's Brownfields Sustainability Pilots program (many of which are in the process of being redeveloped) and on a number of innovative, successful, completed projects around the country referred to as "Best Management Practice" sites. The case studies aim to identify best practices for sustainable redevelopment of brownfields, including the underlying policies and practices that enabled these redevelopments to be undertaken and/or completed.
This program is a part of EPA's Brownfields Initiative to help communities clean and redevelop properties that have been damaged or undervalued by environmental contamination. The aim of the TAB program is to facilitate stakeholder involvement in community brownfields redevelopment efforts. This is done through: leadership training, risk assessment training, workshops in the Brownfields development process, Site assessment workshops, and training on Cleanup alternatives so that local government officials, developers, and environmental/planning professionals are taught to use appropriate technology for sustainable land use.
Collaboration Tools
Fielded by EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), this is an online discussion forum designed to enhance communication between EPA and the public on contaminated sites, waste management, and recycling issues. The forum is a public comment board and the first four discussion topics pertain to community involvement, Superfund metrics, toxic material reduction, and land revitalization. Potential topics for future discussions include recycling, waste management, brownfields, leaking underground storage tanks, and emergency response. EPA plans to post a new topic of discussion each month to generate discussion related to hazardous waste, recycling, and emergency response activities.
Munitions
Developed by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) and dated January 2003. Small arms firing ranges (SAFRs) include government, commercial, and recreational rifle, pistol, trap, skeet, and sporting clay ranges. Small arms firing ranges are those ranges accepting 50 caliber or smaller ammunition. This definition is meant to include shotgun ammunition used on trap- and skeet-type ranges. SAFRs may contain lead, antimony, copper, zinc, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from nonexploding (nonenergetic) bullets and fragments, bullet jackets, and related sporting material (e.g., clay targets); however, lead is the primary risk driver and is thereby the focus of this guidance.
This page provides an historical overview of the munitions cleanup issues, prioritization protocols, and munitions-specific guidance.
Issued as an Interim Final in 2010, this document details EPA's guidelines which provide a framework to EPA Regional Offices overseeing responses involving munitions and explosives of concern (MEC)1 and munitions constituents (MC) at locations other than operational ranges where explosive hazards or environmental contamination are known or suspected to be present.
Dated May 2005, this interim final document, EPA 505-B-01-001, has been written for regulators and the interested public to facilitate understanding of the wide variety of technical issues that surround the munitions response actions at current and former Department of Defense (DoD) facilities (see text box below). The handbook is designed to provide a common nomenclature to aid in the management of munitions and explosives of concern (MEC).
This protocol implements the requirement for DoD assign a relative priority for munitions responses to each location (hereinafter MRS) in the Department's inventory of defense sites known or suspected of containing unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), or munitions constituents (MC) (Federal Register: October 5, 2005 [Rules and Regulations], Page 58016-58054).
This EPA Federal Facilities Forum Issue Paper, dated January 2012, was prepared to provide remedial project managers and other federal, state, and private personnel working on hazardous waste sites the technical information needed to make decisions regarding the nature of energetic residues on Department of Defense training ranges (and other munitions sites such as Formerly Used Defense Sites), sampling strategies that provide representative samples, and analytical methods developed to characterize these samples. This is EPA-505-S-11-001.
New Technology
This factsheet, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), identifies and summarizes selected reports prepared by federal and state agencies to assist project managers in selecting and designing remediation technologies. Remediation Technology Assessment Reports are based on practical field experience with either specific technologies (such as permeable reactive barriers) or, in a few instances, specific contaminants (such as arsenic). As of February 2006, the Web site provides access to 70 of these reports.
This web site provides information about remediation technology demonstration projects.
The SITE Demonstration Program encourages the development and implementation of innovative treatment technologies for hazardous waste site remediation as well as monitoring and measurement technologies. The technology is field-tested on hazardous waste materials. Data collected during the field demonstration are used to assess the performance of the technology, the potential need for pre- and post-processing of the waste, applicable types of wastes and waste matrices, potential operating problems, and approximate capital and operating costs. When a SITE demonstration is completed, EPA prepares an Innovative Technology Evaluation Report, Technology Capsule, and Demonstration Bulletin. These reports evaluate all available information on the technology and analyze its overall applicability to other site characteristics, waste types, and waste matrices. Testing procedures, performance and cost data, and quality assurance and quality standards are also presented.
NPL
This document, dated May 2011, describes the process for accomplishing remedial action completion, construction completion, site completion, partial deletion and site deletion for National Priorities List sites. This document also provides recommended format and content for relevant close out documents. The documents addressed by this guidance are the Remedial Action Report, Preliminary Close Out Report, Final Close Out Report, Notice of Intent to Delete (or Partially Delete), and Notice of Deletion (or Partial Deletion). This is OSWER Directive 9320.2-22.
This guidance addresses how sites are deleted from the NPL and the close out procedures.
A map which indicates the location of all NPL sites in the US, the status of the site, and a fact sheet for each site.
Post Construction Completion
This form is intended to provide general five-year review site information, a summary of issues and recommendations, and a summary of all required protectiveness determinations. The modified Five-Year Review Summary Form provides a tabular format for issues, recommendations and protectiveness statements that are consistent with five-year review CERCLIS data entry requirements to facilitate accurate data entry.
Issued May 2001, this EPA fact sheet provides an overview of O&M throughout the phases of the Superfund pipeline and presents guidance for Remedial Project Managers (RPMs). This is EPA 540-F-01-004.
This guidance provides information to the public and the regulated community on how EPA intends to exercise its discretion in implementing its regulations at contaminated sites. This document does not impose legally binding requirements. The document was issued in April 2009.
Issued by OSWER 13 September 2011, this guidance supplements OSWER's 2001 Comprehensive Five-Year Review Guidance and provides recommendations for conducting five-year reviews for the IC component of remedies in a manner similar to the review of engineering or other remedy components. This document is designed primarily for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Remedial Project Managers.
Property Re-use
This Handbook is intended for EPA, other federal, local, and state cleanup project managers; communities, property owners, developers, and others with an interest in reusing potentially contaminated sites for renewable energy production. This Handbook provides tools to help interested parties determine the overall feasibility of siting renewable energy production and some key considerations for integrating renewable energy development during all phases of typical cleanup processes (e.g., during the environmental assessment, cleanup plan, or cleanup implementation) in the EPA Superfund, Brownfields, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action programs.
These decision trees were developed by EPA and the Department of Energy s National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), to screen potentially contaminated and underutilized sites for solar and wind potential. While the decision tree focuses on potentially contaminated sites, this tool also provides information on rooftop and other applications in order to support complimentary evaluations. These decision trees can be used to screen individual sites for their solar or wind potential or for a community-scale evaluation of multiple sites.
Quality Assurance
Includes a summary of the benefits and limitations of the listed best practices.
This document provides recommendations and guidelines for documentation and implementation of acceptable Quality Systems for Federal agencies.
Remediation
The guide encourages project managers to consider a mix of remedies, including dredging and disposing of sediment; capping it to limit further contamination; or allowing natural attenuation to let chemical contaminants in soil or groundwater to degrade naturally. The final document includes new language encouraging project managers to conduct more analyses and consider more sources of uncertainty regarding the overall contamination of a site. In the final guide the language included directions to take steps to cap contaminants "sufficient" to protect the environment.
Notes: 1. Please read the "Read Me" File first, for an explanation of the attached report sections.
2. The complete report is available for download in the attachment "ACSIM GSR Final Report 2012.zip".
This technology primer, EPA Document # 542-R-08-002, outlines the principles of green remediation and describes opportunities to reduce the footprint of cleanup activities throughout the life of a project. Best management practices (BMPs) outlined in this document help decision-makers, communities, and other stakeholders (such as project managers, field staff, and engineering contractors) identify new strategies in terms of sustainability. These strategies complement rather than replace the process used to select primary remedies that best meet site-specific cleanup goals. The primer identifies the range of alternatives available to improve sustainability of cleanup activities and to help decision-makers balance the alternatives within existing regulatory frameworks.
This paper, dated 6 May 2006, provides an analysis of contaminated site LUC tracking systems at the federal, state, local, and private sector levels. The paper describes the basics of LUCs, then analyze the benefits and uses of LUC tracking. Finally, the appendix provides a complete listing of all the state on-line remediation and LUC tracking databases.
The purpose of this EPA handbook is to provide Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) with an overview of the remedial design (RD) and remedial action (RA) processes. The handbook may be used by the entire range of RPMs from those who have had little experience with RD or RA projects to those who have managed several. It should be most useful for Federal-lead sites where the Superfund Trust Fund is used to finance the RD or RA. The management principles outlined herein, however, apply generally to all lead sites. The RD/RA Handbook focuses on how an RPM can use project management principles to implement effectively a selected remedy in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD). It is not a conventional engineering manual, but rather a general reference document for issues that arise during the RD/RA process. This is EPA publication EPA 540/R-95/059.
RPO is a systematic approach for evaluating existing remediation systems with the goal of improving their effectiveness and reducing overall site cleanup costs without increasing risks. The updated site offers a review of the RPO process, an introduction to available RPO tools, and frequently asked questions.
This document, EPA # EPA/600/R-07/080 issued September 2007, provides guidance for the identification of toxicants in sediments.
The Source Zone Treatment technology roadmap is intended to assist environmental managers in identifying and applying more effective methods for remediating and managing sites with contamination source zones. The web site offers a background on source zone remediation, the relevant issues, "how-to" tools and knowledge, resources, links, and timely state-of-the-art technology reviews.
Substances of Concern
The intent of this USGS project is to provide information on these compounds for evaluation of their potential threat to environmental and human health. To accomplish this goal, the research activities of this project are to: (1) develop analytical methods to measure chemicals and microorganisms or their genes in a variety of matrices (e.g. water, sediment, waste) down to trace levels, (2) determine the environmental occurrence of these potential contaminants, (3) characterize the myriad of sources and source pathways that determine contaminant release to the environment, (4) define and quantify processes that determine their transport and fate through the environment, and (5) identify potential ecologic effects from exposure to these chemicals or microorganisms.
The Framework, OSWER Directive 9200.0-68 dated September 2008. provides guidance for assessing sites contaminated with asbestos that are being addressed under the authority of Superfund. The guidance recommends a general process for site assessment that is supplemental to existing Superfund site and risk assessment guidance.
This site contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants have been or may be released. The docket is updated every six months. Each newly listed facility must be evaluated for possible contamination within a reasonable time. The purpose of the docket is:
  1. To identify all federal facilities that must be evaluated to determine whether they pose a risk to human health and the environment sufficient to warrant inclusion on the National Priorities List (NPL);
  2. To compile and maintain the information submitted to EPA on such facilities under the provisions listed in section 120(c) of CERCLA; and
  3. To provide a mechanism to make the information available to the public.
EPA has established an official reference dose (RfD) of 0.0007 mg/kg/day of perchlorate. The site details the risks, concerns, and methodologies associated with perchlorate.
This document, dated August 2007, was developed to assist DoD facilities in complying with current DoD policy governing perchlorate sampling and testing activities for both environmental restoration/cleanup and compliance monitoring programs. Intended users of this document include DoD Remedial Project Managers (RPMs), contractor project managers, and field-sampling personnel.
This guideline is produced by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and has been updated in 2008. This update replaces Appendix B in the Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (December, 1998). It does not reflect a change in ATSDR's scientific assessment on dioxin toxicity or a change in the ATSDR Minimal Risk Level (MRL). The update does not change the assessment of risk associated with dioxin soil levels up to 1 ppb, the level used by EPA as a preliminary remediation goal for residential soils.
The primary focus of the guidance is the PCB remediation-waste provision contained in TSCA regulations at 40 CFR 761.61. This provision governs the management of waste generated as the result of PCB spills and associated cleanups. That waste includes contaminated environmental media such as soil and water, as well as rags and debris. The guidance provides examples of typical and worst case PCB waste cleanup situations.
This list of emerging contaminants for the National Reconnaissance of Emerging Contaminants in US Streams (see Emerging Contaminants Project) is divided into the following categories: biogenics, pharmaceuticals, sterols, insecticides, plasticizers, detergant metabolites, fire retardents, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fossil fuel and fuel combusion indicators), antioxidants, tetracyclines, Fluoroquinolones, Macrolides, Sulfonamides, human prescription drugs, and miscellaneous others.
Developed by EPA Region 5 and the state of Illinois, the guidebook targets tire manufacturers, state and local government, regulators, auto recyclers and collectors. It includes information on example scrap tire cleanup programs, legal considerations and property issues, cost recovery, local and regional markets for scrap tires, cleanup planning, selecting contractors, and project management.
Under Phase I of ToxCastTM, the chemicals will be examined via high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays. Phase I will be used to create chemical signatures of compounds which will then be compared to known toxicity data in this proof-of-concept phase. It is expected that patterns will emerge that are predictive of compounds that could cause harm to people and the environment. Results of Phase I are expected in 2008, and will be posted on the ToxCastTM Web site. Phase II will involve a larger, more diverse set of chemicals to test the predictability of patterns identified in Phase I. In Phase III, ToxCastTM will expand the list to thousands of environmental chemicals, delivering an affordable, science-based system for decision-makers.
Training, Presentations, and Briefings
The focus of this 2-hour EPA course is retrofitting stormwater management practices into watersheds that have already been developed. This approach can help restore watersheds by providing stormwater treatment in locations it was not originally included. This course is available online or in an MP4 version.
Offered by Federal Occupational Health, classroom training is available related to asbestos abatement, asbestos inspection, asbestos operations and maintenance, and asbestos awareness. The courses vary in duration depending on the complexity of the material being addressed. If you have any questions or are interested in a training for your Federal employees, please contact the FOH Training Center at 202-205-2853 or email fohtrainingcenter@foh.hhs.gov.
This course provides an overview of the purpose, legal framework, and implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).
Offered by the Army Corps of Engineers, this course focuses on the regulatory requirements for cleaning up hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants under CERCLA and solid and/or hazardous wastes at RCRA sites. This is course #356.
The focus of this 2-hour EPA course is how to develop an effective SWPPP. IT includes a discussion of common problems found on construction sites. This course is available online or in an MP4 version.
This course provides an overview of the vapor intrusion exposure pathway including its scientific foundation, regulatory framework, and the technical aspects of investigating and remediating contaminated vapor sites. The class will cover topics such as: screening sites for potential vapor intrusion concerns, conducting field investigations, sampling techniques, data analyses, exposure point calculations, the Johnson and Ettinger predictive model, vapor intrusion risk assessment, vapor intrusion mitigation, and remediation. Participants will work through practical problems and typical site scenarios based on case studies of established vapor intrusion sites. This course provides a comprehensive introduction for those new to the field, and will also provide insights, data analysis techniques, and the latest research for more advanced participants.
Offered by the Army Corps of Engineers, this course provides the student with a practical understanding of various containment, ex-situ, and in-situ technologies. The information is intended for use by geologists, engineers, chemists, and other professionals involved in project planning, technology selection, design, operation, and optimization of remediation technologies for in-house projects or oversight of contractor efforts on environmental restoration sites. This is course #395.
U.S. EPA has developed a strategic planning approach called the Data Life Cycle. This cycle includes three phases: Planning, Implementation, and the Assessment. The DQO process contained in the Planning Phases, plans environmental data collection efforts to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and defensibility of decisions in a resource-effective manner. Use of the DQO approach is intended to ensure that the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of environmental data will be used in decision making with regard to remedial actions and future use/activities at the site. Quality assurance provides quality assurance project plan development (Planning Phases), field data collection and associated quality assurance/quality control activities (Implementation Phases), and data validation and quality control activities (Assessment Phase). This class is ISEERB Approved for all DoD Components. The primary audience is Environmental Restoration Managers, and Environmental Compliance Managers. The course if offered by the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT).
Course number STAT-410 discusses the core elements of the EPA's first major revision to its groundwater statistical guidance in almost 20 years. Presented by the primary author of the revision, this course will showcase new features of the guidance, as well as recommended changes to current statistical practice. In addition to reviewing the design and evaluation of statistical programs for groundwater monitoring, participants will also learn the benefits of checking their assumptions in order to run the most effective statistical tests.
This hybrid course includes an overview/refresher of key chemistry concepts associated with environmental contamination, provides a foundation for understanding contaminant transport, fate and remediation, and delivers an overview of key concepts essential for understanding soil & groundwater contamination and the selection of appropriate remediation approaches. This is Course ID CHEM-410.
This 2-day course provides participants first with a broad overview of Site Restoration/Mitigation, and then expands to an examination of specific steps used for innovative restoration and mitigation planning and implementation, applicable to western North America.
This training course provides details of the structure and application of the revised HRS and information related to the preparation of HRS packages, including HRS score sheets, documentation records, and site summaries.
This training course provides details of the structure and application of the revised HRS and information related to the preparation of HRS packages, including HRS scoresheets, documentation records, and site summaries.
This introductory course is designed to provide participants with information concerning hydrogeological processes and the necessary elements of a sound groundwater site investigation.
This course provides participants with the fundamentals of human health and ecological risk assessment as applied to the Superfund cleanup process.
Offered by Federal Occupational Health, classroom training is available related to lead abatement, lead inspection, lead paint repair and maintenance, and lead awareness. The courses vary in duration depending on the complexity of the material being addressed. If you have any questions or are interested in a training for your Federal employees, please contact the FOH Training Center at 202-205-2853 or email fohtrainingcenter@foh.hhs.gov.
In this course, attendees will learn the role of quality assurance and quality control in developing environmental programs for site investigations, remediation, and monitoring at contaminated sites. Participants will become comfortable with concepts, tools, and the basic statistical methods needed for designing and implementing a field program, and will gain knowledge regarding how to work with a laboratory to ensure the right chemical analyses are performed on the right samples and how to evaluate data produced.
This webinar provides an overview of tools available to local governments to help them get renewable energy projects built on contaminated land in their community. Included in the webinar are discussions about some of the recent tools developed by EPA, including two decision trees that were created to screen potentially contaminated and underutilized sites for solar and wind potential and a draft best practice guide for siting solar on landfills. Also presenting will be representatives from DOE, the National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals (NALGEP), and the Clean Coalitions describing available best practices guidance and other tools.
This 2-hour EPA training includes guidance on conducting a program self-assessment, developing effective stormwater management criteria, and incorporating credits for LID and runoff reduction. This course is available online or in an MP4 version.
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Last Updated: October 31, 2012